Scientific Journal Articles
Showing 101-125 of 632 Results
Hummel, et al. 2019. The role of income and psychological distress in the relationship between work loss and smoking cessation: Findings from three International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe countries [access full article]
Introduction: The relationship between work loss and smoking has not been studied extensively, and underlying factors are often not examined. The aim of this study was to test two hypotheses. First, work loss is associated with greater intention to quit and more likelihood of smoking cessation, and this relationship is moderated by a decrease in income. Second, work loss is associated with lower quit intention and lower rates of smoking cessation, and this relationship is moderated by an increase in psychological distress.
Methods: We used pooled data from three countries participating in the ITC Project: France, Germany and the Netherlands (n=2712). We measured unemployment, income and psychological distress at two consecutive survey waves, and calculated changes between survey waves. We first conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the association between work loss and smoking cessation behavior. Next, we added income decrease and psychological distress increase to the models. Finally, we added interaction terms of work loss by income decrease and work loss by distress increase to the model.
Results: Work loss was not associated with quit intention, quit attempts, and quit success. When income decrease and psychological distress increase were added to the model, we found a positive association between distress increase and quit attempts. The interactions, however, were not statistically significant.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that smokers who become unemployed and face a decrease in income are not less likely to quit smoking than smokers who are employed.[download PDF]
van Mourik, et al. 2019. How the new European Union’s (pictorial) tobacco health warnings influence quit attempts and smoking cessation: Findings from the 2016–2017 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Surveys [access full article]
In 2016, the Netherlands was required to introduce new European Union (EU)’s (pictorial) tobacco health warnings. Our objective was to describe the pathways through which the new EU tobacco health warnings may influence quit attempts and smoking cessation among Dutch smokers. Longitudinal data from 2016 and 2017 from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey were used. Smokers who participated in both surveys were included (N = 1017). Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the hypothesized pathways. Health warning salience was positively associated with more health worries (β = 0.301, p < 0.001) and a more positive attitude towards quitting (β = 0.180, p < 0.001), which, in turn, were associated with a stronger quit intention (health worries: β = 0.304, p < 0.001; attitude: β = 0.340, p < 0.001). Quit intention was a strong predictor of quit attempts (β = 0.336, p = 0.001). Health warning salience was also associated with stronger perceived social norms towards quitting (β = 0.166, p < 0.001), which directly predicted quit attempts (β = 0.141, p = 0.048). Quit attempts were positively associated with smoking cessation (β = 0.453, p = 0.043). Based on these findings, we posit that the effect of the EU’s tobacco health warnings on quit attempts and smoking cessation is mediated by increased health worries and a more positive attitude and perceived social norms towards quitting. Making tobacco health warnings more salient (e.g., by using plain packaging) may increase their potential to stimulate quitting among smokers.[download PDF]
King, et al. 2019. Understanding of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia [access full article]
Introduction and aims: To investigate relationships between smoking-related behaviours and knowledge of the disease risks of smoking and the causes of smoking harms, using a four-way division of 'component causes': nicotine, other substances found in unburned tobacco, combustion products of tobacco and additives.
Design and methods: The data were collected using an on-line survey in Australia with 1047 participants in three groups; young non-smokers (18 to 25), young smokers (18 to 25) and older smokers (26 and above).
Results: Most participants agreed that cancer and heart disease are major risks of smoking but only a quarter accurately quantified the mortality risk of lifetime daily smoking. Very few (two of 1047) correctly estimated the relative contributions of all four component causes. Post-hoc analyses reinterpreting responses as expressions of relative concern about combustion products and nicotine showed that 29% of participants rated combustion products above nicotine. We delineated six relative concern segments, most of which had distinctive patterns of beliefs and actions. However, higher levels of concern about combustion products were only weakly positively associated with harm reducing beliefs and actions.
Discussion and conclusions: Most smokers do not appear to understand the risks of smoking and their causes well enough to be able to think systematically about the courses of action open to them to reduce their health risk. To facilitate informed decision-making, tobacco control communicators may need to better balance the dual aims of creating fear/negative affect about smoking and imparting knowledge about the health harms and their mechanisms.[download PDF]
Lee, et al. 2019. Examining the relationship of vaping to smoking initiation among US youth and young adults: a reality check [access full article]
Background: The 2018 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Report found substantial evidence that electronic cigarette use (vaping) by youth is strongly associated with an increased risk of ever using cigarettes (smoking) and moderately associated with progressing to more established smoking. However, the Report also noted that recent increases in vaping have been associated with declining rates of youth smoking. This paper examines the temporal relationship between vaping and youth smoking using multiple data sets to explore the question of whether vaping promotes smoking initiation in the USA.
Methods: Using publicly available, nationally representative data on smoking and vaping among youth and young adults, we conducted a trend line analysis of deviations from long-term trends in smoking starting from when vaping became more prevalent.
Results: There was a substantial increase in youth vaping prevalence beginning in about 2014. Time trend analyses showed that the decline in past 30-day smoking prevalence accelerated by two to four times after 2014. Indicators of more established smoking rates, including the proportion of daily smokers among past 30-day smokers, also decreased more rapidly as vaping became more prevalent.
Conclusions: The inverse relationship between vaping and smoking was robust across different data sets for both youth and young adults and for current and more established smoking. While trying electronic cigarettes may causally increase smoking among some youth, the aggregate effect at the population level appears to be negligible given the reduction in smoking initiation during the period of vaping’s ascendance.[download PDF]
Fataar, et al. 2019. The prevalence of vaping and smoking as modes of delivery for nicotine and cannabis among youth in Canada, England and the United States [access full article]
Background: Vaping has become an increasingly common mode of administration for both nicotine and cannabis, with overlap among users, devices, as well as nicotine and cannabis companies. There is a need to understand patterns of use among youth, including the way nicotine and cannabis are administered.
Methods: Data are from Wave 2 of the ITC Youth Tobacco and Vaping survey, an online survey conducted in 2018 among 16-19 year-olds recruited from commercial panels in Canada (n = 3757), England (n = 3819), and the U.S. (n = 3961). The prevalence of past 30-day vaping nicotine, nonnicotine and cannabis substances, as well as cannabis modes of use was examined. Logistic regression models examined between country differences in prevalence.
Results: Past 30-day cannabis use was highest among Canadian youth (16.6%), followed by youth in the U.S. (13.8%) and England (9.0%). Vaping e-cigarettes was substantially more prevalent than vaping cannabis in all three countries. All forms of cannabis use were higher among Canadian and U.S. youth compared to England (p < 0.001 for all). Past 30-day cannabis users in the U.S. were more likely to report vaping cannabis oil (30.1%), and consuming solid concentrates such as wax and shatter (30.2%), compared to cannabis users in Canada (18.6% and 22.9%) and England (14.3% and 11.0%; p < 0.001 for all).
Conclusions: Youth are administering cannabis and nicotine using a wide diversity of modes. Cannabis users in the U.S.-where an increasing number of states have legalized medical and non-medical cannabis-reported notably higher use of more potent cannabis products, including cannabis oils and extracts.[download PDF]
Aleyan, et al. 2019. Differences in norms towards the use of nicotine vaping products among adult smokers, former smokers and nicotine vaping product users: cross‐sectional findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Aims: To examine whether norms towards nicotine vaping product (NVP) use varied between Australia, Canada, England and the United States and by socio‐demographics, smoking and NVP status.
Design: Cross‐sectional data from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.
Setting: Four countries with distinct regulatory policies relating to the sale and advertising of NVPs: Australia (most restrictive), Canada (restrictive), England and the United States (least restrictive).
Participants: A total of 10900 adult (age 18+) current smokers, former smokers, or at least weekly NVP users. Respondents were from Australia (n = 1366), Canada (n = 3309), England (n = 3835) and the United States (n = 2390).
Measurements: Questions permitted the categorization of respondents as current smokers, former smokers, NVP users and socio‐demographic categories (sex, age, country, ethnicity, income and education). Further questions were asked regarding the frequency of exposure to NVPs in public, whether they had a partner or close friends who vaped and whether they believed society or those considered important to them approved of NVPs.
Findings: Adjusting for relevant covariates, compared with Australian respondents, those in England, Canada and the United States were more likely to report frequent exposure to NVPs in public (83.1%, 57.3% and 48.3%, respectively, compared to 19.8% in Australia; P < 0.0001), having a partner who vaped (13.8%, 7.1% and 7.7%, respectively, compared to 2.1% in Australia; P < 0.0001) and having close friend(s) who vaped (31.7%, 25.3%, 20.9%, respectively, compared to 10.0% in Australia; P < 0.0001). Compared with Australian respondents, respondents from England were more likely to report that society (27.6% compared to 12.3% in Australia; P < 0.0001) and people important to them approved of NVP use (28.9% compared to 14.3% in Australia; P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Norms towards nicotine vaping product (NVP) use appear to vary among countries with different regulatory contexts regarding sales and advertising.[download PDF]
Cummings , et al. 2019. Predicting the future of smoking in a rapidly evolving nicotine market-place [access full article]
No abstract is available.[download PDF]
Nahhas, et al. 2019. Rules about smoking and vaping in the home: Findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Aims: To examine rules about smoking and vaping in the home in relation to beliefs about the relative harm of second-hand vapor (SHV) compared with second-hand smoke (SHS) in four countries: Canada, United States, England and Australia.
Design: Data were available from 12 294 adults (18+) who participated in the 2016 (wave 1) International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping (ITC 4CV1) Survey.
Participants: All participants were current or recent former adult smokers.
Measurements: Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression on rules about smoking and vaping in the home; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported, adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables.
Findings: Of all respondents, 37.4% allowed smoking inside their home. Among a subset who were current vapers (n = 6135), 60.4% allowed vaping in their homes. After controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, beliefs about the harm of SHV compared with SHS was not associated with allowing smoking in the home, but was associated with allowing vaping in the home [odds ratio (OR) = 2.86 in Canada, OR = 1.82 in the United States and OR = 1.68 in England]. Characteristics that were associated with rules about vaping inside the home included daily vaping (OR = 2.95, 2.04-4.26; OR = 7.00, 4.12-11.87; OR = 5.50, 3.40-8.88; OR = 7.78, 1.90-31.80), living with a spouse who vapes (OR = 2.48, 1.54-3.98; OR = 2.69, 1.42-5.11; OR = 4.67, 2.74-7.95; OR = 21.82, 2.16-220.9) and living with children aged under 18 years (OR = 0.50, 0.37-0.68; OR = 0.89, 0.48-1.65; OR = 0.76, 0.53-1.09; OR = 0.26, = 0.11-0.61) in Canada, the United States, England and Australia, respectively. Similar characteristics were associated with rules about smoking inside the home.
Conclusions: Among current and former smokers in 2016 in Canada, the United States, England and Australia, 37.4% allowed smoking in the home; 60.4% of current vapers allowed vaping. Both concurrent users and exclusive vapers were more likely to allow vaping than smoking inside the home. Allowing vaping inside the home was correlated with the belief that second-hand vapor is less harmful than second-hand smoke.[download PDF]
O'Connor, et al. 2019. Characteristics of nicotine vaping products used by participants in the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Background and Aims: The regulatory environment for nicotine vaping products (NVPs) varies widely across countries and this will probably affect the devices used, nicotine content and usage, and hence the ability of NVPs to substitute for cigarettes. We aimed to describe the types of NVPs used by current vapers in four countries with varying regulatory and enforcement approaches toward the marketing and sale of NVPs.
Methods: Data are from wave 1 (July–November 2016) of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (4CV1), conducted among a cohort of current and former smokers, and current NVP users (n = 5147 adults; ≥ 18 years) in Australia (AU), Canada (CA), England (EN) and the United States (US) reporting either current daily, weekly or occasional NVP use. Devices were described by type, brand, voltage variability and refill capacity. Refill solutions were described by flavour and nicotine content. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were conducted on the overall sample and stratified by country. A multinomial logistic regression examined factors associated with device preference across the whole sample.
Results: The types of NVPs used differed by pattern of use and country. Exclusive, daily vapers were more likely to use refillable pen‐shaped devices [odds ratio (OR) = 10.0] or refillable box‐shaped devices (OR = 5.4) than disposable cigalike devices, when compared with other (non‐daily/dual) users. Nearly all respondents reported using flavoured NVPs, fruit (28.3%) being the most common flavour. Refillable devices were the most popular: refillable box‐shaped devices were more commonly reported by vapers in AU (36.8%) and US (31.4%), whereas in EN (47.4%) and CA (29.7%), vapers more often reported using refillable pen‐style devices. Most users also reported that their products contained nicotine, even in CA (87.8%) and AU (91.2%), where vaping products containing nicotine were technically illegal.
Conclusions: In Australia, Canada, England and the United States in 2016, refillable nicotine vaping products were the most common type of nicotine vaping products used by daily vapers. Most daily vapers reported using flavoured e‐liquids/refills (with variance across countries) and most reported using products that contain nicotine, even where vaping products with nicotine were banned.[download PDF]
McNeill, et al. 2019. Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: Findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Background and Aims: It has been proposed that many smokers switch to vaping because their nicotine addiction makes this their only viable route out of smoking. We compared indicators of prior and current cigarette smoking dependence and of relapse in former smokers who were daily users of nicotine vaping products (‘vapers’) or who were not vaping at the time of survey (‘non‐vapers’).
Design: Cross‐sectional survey‐based comparison between vaping and non‐vaping former smokers, including a weighted logistic regression of vaping status onto predictor variables, adjusting for covariates specified below.
Setting: United States, Canada, Australia and England.
Participants: A total of 1070 people aged 18+ years from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey who reported having ever been daily smokers but who stopped less than 2 years ago and who were currently vapers or non‐vapers.
Measurements: Dependent variable was current vaping status. Predictor variables were self‐reported: (1) smoking within 5 minutes of waking and usual daily cigarette consumption, both assessed retrospectively; (2) current perceived addiction to smoking, urges to smoke and confidence in staying quit. Covariates: country, sample sources, sex, age group, ethnicity, income, education, current nicotine replacement therapy use and time since quitting.
Findings: Vapers were more likely than non‐vapers to report: (1) having smoked within 5 minutes of waking [34.3 versus 15.9%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99, 7.03), χ2 = 16.92, P < 0.001]; having smoked > 10 cigarettes/day (74.4 versus 47.2%, aOR = 4.39, 95% CI = 2.22, 8.68), χ2 = 18.18, P < 0.001); (2) perceiving themselves to be still very addicted to smoking (41.3 versus 26.2%, aOR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.58, 5.30, χ2 = 11.87, P < 0.001) and feeling extremely confident about staying quit (62.1 versus 36.6%, aOR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.86, 5.59, χ2 = 17.36, P < 0.001). Vapers were not more likely to report any urges to smoke than non‐vapers (27.7 versus 38.8%, aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.65, χ2 = 0.21, P = 0.643).
Conclusions: While former smokers who currently vape nicotine daily report higher levels of cigarette smoking dependence pre‐ and post‐cessation compared with former smokers who are current non‐vapers, they report greater confidence in staying quit and similar strength of urges to smoke.[download PDF]
Herbec, et al. 2019. Dependence, plans to quit, quitting self-efficacy and past cessation behaviours among menthol and other flavoured cigarette users in Europe – The EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: This study characterises smoking and cessation related behaviours among menthol and other flavoured cigarette users in Europe prior to the implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) ban on the sale of flavoured cigarettes.
Methods: An analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2016 EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys was conducted among a sample of 10760 adult smokers from eight European Union Member States. Respondents were classified as menthol, other flavoured, unflavoured, or no usual flavour cigarette users and compared on smoking and cessation behaviours and characteristics. Data were analysed in SPSS Complex Samples Package using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, and country.
Results: In bivariate analyses, cigarette flavour was significantly associated with all outcomes (p<0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, these associations attenuated but remained significant and in the same direction for dependence, self-efficacy, plans to quit, past quit attempts, and ever e-cigarette use. In fully adjusted models, compared to smokers of non-flavoured cigarettes, menthol smokers were less likely to smoke daily (AOR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.32–0.71), smoke within 30 min of waking (0.52,0.43–0.64), consider themselves addicted (0.74,0.59–0.94), and more likely to have ever used e-cigarettes (1.26,1.00–1.57); other flavoured cigarette smokers were less likely to smoke daily (0.33,0.15–0.77), and have higher self-efficacy (1.82,1.20–2.77); no usual flavour smokers were less likely to smoke daily (0.34,0.22–0.51), smoke within 30 min of waking (0.66,0.55–0.80), consider themselves addicted (0.65,0.52–0.78), have ever made a quit attempt (0.69,0.58– 0.84), have ever used e-cigarettes (0.66,0.54–0.82), and had higher self-efficacy (1.46,1.19–1.80).
Conclusions: Smokers of different cigarette flavours in Europe differ on smoking and cessation characteristics. The lower dependence of menthol cigarette smokers could lead to greater success rates if quit attempts are made, however cross-country differences in smoking behaviours and quitting intentions could lead to the TPD ban on cigarette flavours having differential impact if not accompanied by additional measures, such as smoking cessation support.[download PDF]
Nargis, et al. 2019. Socioeconomic patterns of smoking cessation behavior in low and middle-income countries: Emerging evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys and International Tobacco Control Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: Tobacco smoking is often more prevalent among those with lower socio-economic status (SES) in high-income countries, which can be driven by the inequalities in initiation and cessation of smoking. Smoking is a leading contributor to socio-economic disparities in health. To date, the evidence for any socio-economic inequality in smoking cessation is lacking, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examined the association between cessation behaviours and SES of smokers from eight LMICs.
Methods: Data among former and current adult smokers aged 18 and older came from contemporaneous Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (2008–2011) and the International Tobacco Control Surveys (2009–2013) conducted in eight LMICs (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand and Uruguay). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of successful quitting in the past year by SES indicators (household income/wealth, education, employment status, and rural-urban residence) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression controlling for socio-demographics and average tobacco product prices. A random effects meta-analysis was used to combine the estimates of AORs pooled across countries and two concurrent surveys for each country.
Results: Estimated quit rates among smokers (both daily and occasional) varied widely across countries. Meta-analysis of pooled AORs across countries and data sources indicated that there was no clear evidence of an association between SES indicators and successful quitting. The only exception was employed smokers, who were less likely to quit than their non-employed counterparts, which included students, homemakers, retirees, and the unemployed (pooled AOR≈0.8, p<0.10).
Conclusion: Lack of clear evidence of the impact of lower SES on adult cessation behaviour in LMICs suggests that lower-SES smokers are not less successful in their attempts to quit than their higher-SES counterparts. Specifically, lack of employment, which is indicative of younger age and lower nicotine dependence for students, or lower personal disposable income and lower affordability for the unemployed and the retirees, may be associated with quitting. Raising taxes and prices of tobacco products that lowers affordability of tobacco products might be a key strategy for inducing cessation behaviour among current smokers and reducing overall tobacco consumption. Because low-SES smokers are more sensitive to price increases, tobacco taxation policy can induce disproportionately larger decreases in tobacco consumption among them and help reduce socio-economic disparities in smoking and consequent health outcomes.[download PDF]
2019. Youth self-reported exposure to and perceptions of vaping advertisments: Findings from the 2017 International Tobacco Control Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Countries have adopted various regulations to limit youth exposure to vaping product advertising. This study aims to examine youth exposure to and perceptions of vaping ads in Canada, England, and the US, three countries with varying vaping product advertising regulations. Data were analyzed from the 2017 ITC Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey, an online survey of youth aged 16 to 19 years from a consumer panel (n = 12,064). The survey assessed vaping product ad exposure in the prior month, including channels, perceived appeal, and perceived target audience. Most young people reported some vaping product ad exposure in the past 30 days (Canada = 74%, England = 83%, US = 81%). Among those exposed to vaping product ads, more than one-third found them appealing (Canada = 36%, England = 38%, US = 43%). Stores that sell cigarettes were the most common venue for vaping ad exposure, although it was less common in Canada (46%) than in England (60%) or the US (60%), both of which had less restrictive regulatory environments. Ad exposure through websites or social media did not differ by country (Canada = 38%, England = 40%, US = 41%). Compared to those who never smoked or used vaping products, youth who reported smoking and/or vaping were more likely to report ad exposure through most channels. More than one-third of youth perceived that vaping product ads target non-smokers (Canada = 47%, England = 36%, US = 48%). Our study suggests most youth are exposed to vaping product ads, which may promote product use. Except for online channels, cross-country differences in the channels of ad exposure may reflect contrasting regulatory environments.[download PDF]
Kaai, et al. 2019. Identifying factors associated with quit intentions among smokers from two nationally representative samples in Africa: Findings from the ITC Kenya and Zambia Surveys [access full article]
It is well established that intentions to quit smoking is the strongest predictor of future quit attempts. However, most studies on quit intentions have been conducted in high-income countries with very few in low- and middle-income countries particularly in Africa. This is the first population-based study to compare factors associated with quit intentions among smokers in two African countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Kenya and Zambia Surveys (2012), face-to-face surveys of nationally representative samples of 2291 adult smokers (Kenya = 1103; Zambia = 1188). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of quit intentions. Most Kenyan (65.1%) and Zambian (69.1%) smokers had quit intentions of which 54.8% planned to quit within the next 6 months. Five factors were significantly associated with quit intentions in both countries: being younger, having tried to quit previously, perceiving that quitting is beneficial to health, worrying about future health consequences of smoking, and being low in nicotine dependence. The predictive strength of these factors did not differ in the two countries. Four additional factors were significant predictors in Zambia only: having a quit attempt lasting six months or more, lower smoking enjoyment, having a negative opinion about smoking, and concern about cigarette expenses. The factors predicting quit intentions were similar to those in other ITC countries including Canada, US, UK, China and Mauritius. These findings highlight the need for stronger tobacco control policies in Kenya and Zambia including increased taxation, greater access to cessation services, and anti-smoking campaigns denormalizing tobacco use.[download PDF]
McKiernan, et al. 2019. Beliefs among Adult Smokers and Quitters about Nicotine and De-nicotinized Cigarettes in the 2016-17 ITC New Zealand Survey [access full article]
Objectives: We sought to explore understanding of addiction and nicotine, as well as support and interest in low-nicotine cigarettes among New Zealand (NZ) smokers and recent quitters.
Methods: Data came from wave 1 (August 2016-April 2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) NZ Survey, comprising 1090 smokers and recent quitters, including 363 identifying as Māori (the NZ indigenous population).
Results: Most participants (74%) were interested in trying low-nicotine or nicotine-free cigarettes and 80% supported introducing a law to reduce nicotine in cigarettes and tobacco if nicotine was available through alternative products. Support was similar among demographic groups, smokers, recent quitters, and daily and occasional smokers. Nearly all participants believed smoking is addictive and nicotine is the major cause of addiction. Almost half erroneously thought nicotine is the main cause of cancer from cigarettes.
Conclusions: Findings suggest that introducing mandated low-nicotine cigarettes could be feasible in NZ where alternative nicotine delivery products are widely available. However, implementation may need to be accompanied by public education to correct misperceptions about the harmfulness of nicotine and to encourage switching to alternative nicotine delivery products among smokers who cannot quit nicotine completely.[download PDF]
Nahhas, et al. 2019. Cigarette brand preferences of adolescent and adult smokers in the United States, 2013-2014 [access full article]
Background: Despite restrictions on where and how cigarette companies can market their products, cigarettes remain a heavily advertised consumer product in America. Examining the brand preferences of smokers may provide clues to understanding how shifting consumer preferences and industry marketing strategies are influencing smoking related behaviors. This study presents estimates of cigarettes brand preferences of adolescents and adults in the United States. Objective: In this paper, we examine the brand preferences of smokers and how that relates to cigarette brand features in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Survey Wave-1 (September 2013-December 2014).
Methods: There were 32,320 adult and 13,651 youth participants in the survey. Analyses were restricted to current smokers who reported purchasing cigarettes, 10,493 adults and 282 youth. Frequencies, weighted percentages, and chi-square tests were reported.
Results: Respondents reported purchasing a total of 58 brands with many more brand name line extensions with a greater diversity of brands reported by adults compared to youth. Marlboro, Newport, Camel, and American Spirit accounted for >90% of the purchasing among youth, while accounting for about 70% among adults. Mentholated cigarettes were smoked by over 39% of youth and 38% of adults, particularly Hispanics and Blacks. Longer-length cigarette use was more commonly reported by females, and discounted brands were more commonly used by older and daily smokers.
Conclusions: Price discounting, cigarette length, use of menthol flavoring, age, and ethnicity were associated with cigarette brand preferences and purchases. Cigarette characteristics such as length, filtration, price, flavor, and general packaging could be regulated to limit the appeal of cigarettes to different sub-populations.[download PDF]
Levy, et al. 2019. An examination of the variation in estimates of e-cigarette prevalence among U.S. adults [access full article]
Introduction: Accurate estimates of e-cigarette use are needed to gauge its impact on public health. We compared the results of online and traditional, large scale surveys and provide additional estimates from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) survey, with the aim of assessing the extent of variation in prevalence estimates.
Materials and Methods: We searched the peer-reviewed literature for nationally representative estimates of U.S. adult e-cigarette prevalence, and developed our own estimates from waves one, two, and three of the PATH survey. We compared estimates by age, gender, cigarette smoking status, and e-cigarette use intensity both between online and traditional surveys and among the traditional surveys.
Results: For specific years, online surveys generally yielded higher adult use rates than most traditional surveys, but considerable variation was found among traditional surveys. E-cigarette prevalence was greater for less intensive than for more intensive use. Levels of use were higher among current and recent former cigarette smokers than among former smokers of longer quit duration and never smokers, and by those of younger ages.
Conclusions: Considerable variation in e-cigarette use estimates was observed even for a specific year. Further study is needed to uncover the source of variation in e-cigarette prevalence measures, with a view towards developing measures that best explain regular use and transitions between the use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products.[download PDF]
van Mourik, et al. 2019. Did e-cigarette users notice the new European Union’s e-cigarette legislation? Findings from the 2015–2017 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey [access full article]
This study examined to what extent e-cigarette users noticed the European Union’s new legislation regarding e-cigarettes, and whether this may have influenced perceptions regarding addictiveness and toxicity. Data were obtained from yearly surveys (2015–2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied. About a third of the e-cigarette users noticed the text warning (28%) and the leaflet (32%). When compared to tobacco-only smokers, e-cigarette users showed greater increases in perceptions regarding addictiveness (β = 0.457, p = 0.045 vs. β = 0.135, p < 0.001) and toxicity (β = 0.246, p = 0.055 vs. β = 0.071, p = 0.010). In conclusion, the new legislation’s noticeability should be increased.[download PDF]
Park, et al. 2019. Attitudes of Korean smokers toward smoke-free public places: findings from the longitudinal ITC Korea Survey, 2005-2010 [access full article]
Objective: Prior to December 2012, restaurants in South Korea were required to implement only partial smoking bans. This study documents the changes in Korean smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans between 2005 and 2010 and explores the effects of anti-smoking advertising as a correlate of support for total smoking bans in public places.
Design: Longitudinal cohort study of Korean adult smokers.
Settomg: The data were derived from three waves (2005, 2008 and 2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Korea Survey.
Participants: The ITC Korea Survey respondents were a probability-based, nationally representative sample of Korean smokers aged 19 and older. The current analysis includes 995 smokers who participated in Wave 1 (2005), 1737 smokers who participated in Wave 2 (2008) and 1560 smokers who participated in Wave 3 (2010).
Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: Changes in respondents' awareness of secondhand smoke (SHS) harm, attitudes towards smoking bans and personal rules for smoking in private homes and/or vehicles were analysed. Correlates of support for smoking bans in public places were examined using generalised estimating equation regression models.
Results: More than 80% of Korean smokers are aware of the harms of SHS. The proportion of smokers who support smoke-free restaurants or smoke-free bars increased twofold between 2005 and 2010. Smokers who were aware of the dangers of SHS were more likely to support a total smoking ban in workplaces. Noticing anti-smoking advertising or information was not significantly associated with support for a total smoking ban in public places.
Conclusions: Korean smokers became more supportive of smoking bans in public places between 2005 and 2008. These results show that smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans can change with the implementation of smoke-free policies, even in a country that has a high prevalence of smokers.[download PDF]
Smith, et al. 2019. The impact of e-liquid propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin ratio on rating of subjective effects, reinforcements value, and use in current smokers [access full article]
Introduction: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) vary on a wide range of characteristics that may affect reinforcement value and use. One characteristic is the ratio of two solvents commonly used in most e-liquids: propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG). The goal of this study was to understand how PG/VG ratio affects subjective effects, reinforcement value, and tobacco use patterns among current smokers who try using ENDS.
Aims and methods: Current smokers with minimal ENDS use history (n = 30) sampled, in a double-blind fashion, three different e-liquids that varied in PG/VG ratio (70/30, 50/50, 0/100) while holding constant other aspects of the e-liquid and ENDS. Participants tried each e-liquid before rating the subjective effects on a modified version of the Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire. Reinforcement value was assessed using a preference task where participants chose between the three e-liquids. The impact of each e-liquid on cigarette reinforcement was assessed using a modified version of the Cigarette Purchase Task. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one e-liquid to take home for 1 week. Results: PG/VG ratio had minimal impact on most of the tested outcomes. Participants rated the highest PG concentration as having a stronger throat hit than the other two. There was no significant difference between the number of participants who preferred each of the PG/VG ratios in the preference assessment. PG/VG ratio did not affect cigarette or ENDS use during the sampling week.
Conclusions: These data suggest that PG/VG ratio has minimal impact on subjective effects and reinforcement value in ENDS naive current smokers. Implications: These data suggest that PG/VG ratio, within the range that is commonly used, has minimal impact on subjective effects, reinforcement value, or uptake in current smokers with minimal ENDS experience.[download PDF]
Sontag, et al. 2019. Baseline assessment of noticing e-cigarette health warnings among youth and young adults in the United States, Canada and England, and associations with harm perceptions, nicotine awareness and warning recall [access full article]
Health warnings on tobacco products can inform users of potential risks. However, little is known about young people's exposure to health warnings on e-cigarette products. This baseline assessment of young people's noticing e-cigarette warnings uses nationally representative data from three countries. Data were collected under Wave 1 of the ITC Youth Tobacco and E-cigarette Survey, conducted in Canada, England, and the US. Online surveys were completed by 16-19-year-olds in July/August 2017 (n = 12,064), when warnings were either newly required (England) or voluntarily carried by some manufacturers (US, Canada). Analyses examined prevalence and correlates of noticing warnings and associations between noticing warnings and product perceptions, adjusting for country, sex, age, race/ethnicity, and cigarette/e-cigarette use status. About 12% reported noticing warnings on e-cigarette packaging in the past 30 days. Noticing warnings was significantly more likely among youth in England (AOR = 1.3, p < .01) and the US (AOR = 1.3, p < .01) versus Canada, and was most likely among dual ecigarette/cigarette users (AOR = 4.69, p < .001) versus nonusers. Unaided recall of the keyword nicotine was low among those who noticed warnings (7.5%). However, ever e-cigarette users who noticed warnings had higher odds of knowing whether e-cigarettes contained nicotine (AOR = 2.26, p < .001). Noticing warnings was significantly associated with higher odds of believing e-cigarettes cause at least some harm to users (AOR = 1.19), are as harmful as cigarettes (AOR = 1.45), and can be addictive (AOR = 1.43). Baseline assessment reveals that youth's noticing of e-cigarette warnings and recall of nicotineaddiction messages was low. Research should track exposure over time as warning requirements are implemented across different countries.[download PDF]
Passos, et al. 2019. Dynamic, data-driven typologies of long-term smoking, cessation and their correlates: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey [access full article]
Rationale: Efforts towards tobacco control are numerous, but relapse rates for smoking cessations remain high. Behavioral changes necessary for continuous cessation appear complex, variable and subject to social, biological, psychological and environmental determinants. Currently, most cessation studies concentrate on short-to midterm behavioral changes. Besides, they use fixed typologies, thereby failing to capture the temporal changes in smoking/cessation behaviors, and its determinants.
Objective: To obtain long-term, data-driven longitudinal patterns or profiles of smoking, cessation, and related determinants in a cohort of adult smokers, and to investigate their dynamic links. Methods: The dataset originated from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Project, waves 2008 to 2016. Temporal dynamics of smoking/cessation, psychosocial constructs, and time-varying determinants of smoking were extracted with Group-Based Trajectory Modeling technique. Their associations were investigated via multiple regression models.
Results: Substantial heterogeneity of smoking and cessation behaviors was unveiled. Most respondents were classified as persistent smokers, albeit with distinct levels of consumption. For a minority, cessation could be sustained between 1 and 8 years, while others showed relapsing or fluctuating smoking behavior. Links between smoking/cessation trajectories with those of psychosocial and sociodemographic variables were diverse. Notably, changes in two variables were aligned to behavioral changes towards cessation: decreasing number of smoking peers and attaining a higher self-perceived control.
Conclusion: The unveiled heterogeneity of smoking behavior over time and the varied cross-dependencies between smoking data-driven typologies and those of underlying risk factors underscore the need of individually tailored approaches for motivational quitting.[download PDF]
Driezen, et al. 2019. State-level affordability of factory-made cigarettes among current US smokers: Findings from the ITC US Survey, 2003-2015 [access full article]
Cigarette affordability measures the price smokers pay for cigarettes in relation to their incomes. Affordability can be measured using the relative income price of cigarettes (RIP), or the price smokers pay to purchase 100 packs of 20 cigarettes divided by their per capita household income. Using longitudinal data from 7046 smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey, the purpose of this study was to test whether affordability significantly changed following the US federal tax increase implemented on 1 April 2009. This study also estimated temporal trends in affordability from 2003–2015 at state and national levels using small area estimation methods and segmented linear mixed effects regression models. RIP increased slightly during 2003–2008. This was followed by a 30% increase during 2008–2010, indicating cigarettes were less affordable after the federal tax increase. RIP continued to increase during 2010–2013 but decreased during 2013–2015, suggesting cigarettes have recently become more affordable for US smokers. State-level trends in RIP were consistent with overall national trends. Controlling for other factors, a $1 increase in the state excise tax was significantly associated with a 9% increase in RIP, indicating state taxes reduced affordability. Tax-induced price increases must keep pace with underlying economic conditions to ensure cigarettes do not become more affordable over time.[download PDF]
Sharma, et al. 2019. Awareness and interest in lung cancer screening among current and former smokers: Findings from the ITC United States Survey [access full article]
Purpose: To examine the awareness of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening among a population of current and former smokers using a nationally representative sample from the United States.
Methods: Data for this study come from Wave 9 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2015. Among respondents age ≥ 40 (n = 1145), a 50% random sample were asked a series of questions pertaining to lung cancer screening. This study examines awareness and screening behaviors in relationship to demographic characteristics of respondents, health beliefs, psychosocial behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Descriptive tables and χ2 tests were used to examine the association between those who were aware and unaware. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, stratified on respondents’ smoking status. Data were weighed to be representative of the current smoking population in the US.
Results: Overall, 52% of current and former smokers reported being aware of lung cancer screening. Among the group with no prior screening, 80.6% said they would take a lung cancer screening exam if recommended by their physician. In the multivariate models, former smokers had significantly greater awareness of lung cancer screening compared to current smokers [odds ratio 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.03, 1.97)].
Conclusions: Awareness of LDCT lung cancer screening was lower among current smokers compared to former smokers. Most smokers who had not ever been screened said they would have lung cancer screening if it were recommended by their physician, demonstrating the need for healthcare providers to encourage those eligible for screening to[download PDF]
Hammond, et al. 2019. Prevalence of vaping and smoking among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States: repeat national cross-sectional surveys [access full article]
Objective: To examine differences in vaping and smoking prevalence among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States.
Design: Repeat cross sectional surveys.
Setting: Online surveys in Canada, England, and the US.
Participants: National samples of 16 to 19 year olds in 2017 and 2018, recruited from commercial panels in Canada (n=7891), England (n=7897), and the US (n=8140).
Main outcome measures: Prevalence of vaping and smoking was assessed for use ever, in the past 30 days, in the past week, and on 15 days or more in the past month. Use of JUUL (a nicotine salt based electronic cigarette with high nicotine concentration) and usual vaping brands were also assessed. Logistic regression models examined differences in vaping and smoking between countries and over time.
Results: The prevalence of vaping in the past 30 days, in the past week, and on 15 days or more in the past month increased in Canada and the US between 2017 and 2018 (P<0.001 for all), including among non-smokers and experimental smokers, with no changes in England. Smoking prevalence increased in Canada (P<0.001 for all measures), with modest increases in England, and no changes in the US. The percentage of ever vapers who reported more frequent vaping increased in Canada and the US (P<0.01 for all), but not in England. The use of JUUL increased in all countries, particularly the US and Canada—for example, the proportion of current vapers in the US citing JUUL as their usual brand increased threefold between 2017 and 2018.
Conclusions: Between 2017 and 2018, among 16 to 19 year olds the prevalence of vaping increased in Canada and the US, as did smoking in Canada, with little change in England. The rapidly evolving vaping market and emergence of nicotine salt based products warrant close monitoring.[download PDF]