Scientific Journal Articles
Showing 26-50 of 543 Results
Nahhas, et al. 2019. Rules about smoking and vaping in the home: Findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Aims: To examine rules about smoking and vaping in the home in relation to beliefs about the relative harm of second-hand vapor (SHV) compared with second-hand smoke (SHS) in four countries: Canada, United States, England and Australia.
Design: Data were available from 12 294 adults (18+) who participated in the 2016 (wave 1) International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping (ITC 4CV1) Survey.
Participants: All participants were current or recent former adult smokers.
Measurements: Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression on rules about smoking and vaping in the home; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported, adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables.
Findings: Of all respondents, 37.4% allowed smoking inside their home. Among a subset who were current vapers (n = 6135), 60.4% allowed vaping in their homes. After controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, beliefs about the harm of SHV compared with SHS was not associated with allowing smoking in the home, but was associated with allowing vaping in the home [odds ratio (OR) = 2.86 in Canada, OR = 1.82 in the United States and OR = 1.68 in England]. Characteristics that were associated with rules about vaping inside the home included daily vaping (OR = 2.95, 2.04-4.26; OR = 7.00, 4.12-11.87; OR = 5.50, 3.40-8.88; OR = 7.78, 1.90-31.80), living with a spouse who vapes (OR = 2.48, 1.54-3.98; OR = 2.69, 1.42-5.11; OR = 4.67, 2.74-7.95; OR = 21.82, 2.16-220.9) and living with children aged under 18 years (OR = 0.50, 0.37-0.68; OR = 0.89, 0.48-1.65; OR = 0.76, 0.53-1.09; OR = 0.26, = 0.11-0.61) in Canada, the United States, England and Australia, respectively. Similar characteristics were associated with rules about smoking inside the home.
Conclusions: Among current and former smokers in 2016 in Canada, the United States, England and Australia, 37.4% allowed smoking in the home; 60.4% of current vapers allowed vaping. Both concurrent users and exclusive vapers were more likely to allow vaping than smoking inside the home. Allowing vaping inside the home was correlated with the belief that second-hand vapor is less harmful than second-hand smoke.[download PDF]
O'Connor, et al. 2019. Characteristics of nicotine vaping products used by participants in the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Background and Aims: The regulatory environment for nicotine vaping products (NVPs) varies widely across countries and this will probably affect the devices used, nicotine content and usage, and hence the ability of NVPs to substitute for cigarettes. We aimed to describe the types of NVPs used by current vapers in four countries with varying regulatory and enforcement approaches toward the marketing and sale of NVPs.
Methods: Data are from wave 1 (July–November 2016) of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (4CV1), conducted among a cohort of current and former smokers, and current NVP users (n = 5147 adults; ≥ 18 years) in Australia (AU), Canada (CA), England (EN) and the United States (US) reporting either current daily, weekly or occasional NVP use. Devices were described by type, brand, voltage variability and refill capacity. Refill solutions were described by flavour and nicotine content. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were conducted on the overall sample and stratified by country. A multinomial logistic regression examined factors associated with device preference across the whole sample.
Results: The types of NVPs used differed by pattern of use and country. Exclusive, daily vapers were more likely to use refillable pen‐shaped devices [odds ratio (OR) = 10.0] or refillable box‐shaped devices (OR = 5.4) than disposable cigalike devices, when compared with other (non‐daily/dual) users. Nearly all respondents reported using flavoured NVPs, fruit (28.3%) being the most common flavour. Refillable devices were the most popular: refillable box‐shaped devices were more commonly reported by vapers in AU (36.8%) and US (31.4%), whereas in EN (47.4%) and CA (29.7%), vapers more often reported using refillable pen‐style devices. Most users also reported that their products contained nicotine, even in CA (87.8%) and AU (91.2%), where vaping products containing nicotine were technically illegal.
Conclusions: In Australia, Canada, England and the United States in 2016, refillable nicotine vaping products were the most common type of nicotine vaping products used by daily vapers. Most daily vapers reported using flavoured e‐liquids/refills (with variance across countries) and most reported using products that contain nicotine, even where vaping products with nicotine were banned.[download PDF]
McNeill, et al. 2019. Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: Findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Background and Aims: It has been proposed that many smokers switch to vaping because their nicotine addiction makes this their only viable route out of smoking. We compared indicators of prior and current cigarette smoking dependence and of relapse in former smokers who were daily users of nicotine vaping products (‘vapers’) or who were not vaping at the time of survey (‘non‐vapers’).
Design: Cross‐sectional survey‐based comparison between vaping and non‐vaping former smokers, including a weighted logistic regression of vaping status onto predictor variables, adjusting for covariates specified below.
Setting: United States, Canada, Australia and England.
Participants: A total of 1070 people aged 18+ years from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey who reported having ever been daily smokers but who stopped less than 2 years ago and who were currently vapers or non‐vapers.
Measurements: Dependent variable was current vaping status. Predictor variables were self‐reported: (1) smoking within 5 minutes of waking and usual daily cigarette consumption, both assessed retrospectively; (2) current perceived addiction to smoking, urges to smoke and confidence in staying quit. Covariates: country, sample sources, sex, age group, ethnicity, income, education, current nicotine replacement therapy use and time since quitting.
Findings: Vapers were more likely than non‐vapers to report: (1) having smoked within 5 minutes of waking [34.3 versus 15.9%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99, 7.03), χ2 = 16.92, P < 0.001]; having smoked > 10 cigarettes/day (74.4 versus 47.2%, aOR = 4.39, 95% CI = 2.22, 8.68), χ2 = 18.18, P < 0.001); (2) perceiving themselves to be still very addicted to smoking (41.3 versus 26.2%, aOR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.58, 5.30, χ2 = 11.87, P < 0.001) and feeling extremely confident about staying quit (62.1 versus 36.6%, aOR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.86, 5.59, χ2 = 17.36, P < 0.001). Vapers were not more likely to report any urges to smoke than non‐vapers (27.7 versus 38.8%, aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.65, χ2 = 0.21, P = 0.643).
Conclusions: While former smokers who currently vape nicotine daily report higher levels of cigarette smoking dependence pre‐ and post‐cessation compared with former smokers who are current non‐vapers, they report greater confidence in staying quit and similar strength of urges to smoke.[download PDF]
Herbec, et al. 2019. Dependence, plans to quit, quitting self-efficacy and past cessation behaviours among menthol and other flavoured cigarette users in Europe – The EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: This study characterises smoking and cessation related behaviours among menthol and other flavoured cigarette users in Europe prior to the implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) ban on the sale of flavoured cigarettes.
Methods: An analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2016 EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys was conducted among a sample of 10760 adult smokers from eight European Union Member States. Respondents were classified as menthol, other flavoured, unflavoured, or no usual flavour cigarette users and compared on smoking and cessation behaviours and characteristics. Data were analysed in SPSS Complex Samples Package using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, and country.
Results: In bivariate analyses, cigarette flavour was significantly associated with all outcomes (p<0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, these associations attenuated but remained significant and in the same direction for dependence, self-efficacy, plans to quit, past quit attempts, and ever e-cigarette use. In fully adjusted models, compared to smokers of non-flavoured cigarettes, menthol smokers were less likely to smoke daily (AOR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.32–0.71), smoke within 30 min of waking (0.52,0.43–0.64), consider themselves addicted (0.74,0.59–0.94), and more likely to have ever used e-cigarettes (1.26,1.00–1.57); other flavoured cigarette smokers were less likely to smoke daily (0.33,0.15–0.77), and have higher self-efficacy (1.82,1.20–2.77); no usual flavour smokers were less likely to smoke daily (0.34,0.22–0.51), smoke within 30 min of waking (0.66,0.55–0.80), consider themselves addicted (0.65,0.52–0.78), have ever made a quit attempt (0.69,0.58– 0.84), have ever used e-cigarettes (0.66,0.54–0.82), and had higher self-efficacy (1.46,1.19–1.80).
Conclusions: Smokers of different cigarette flavours in Europe differ on smoking and cessation characteristics. The lower dependence of menthol cigarette smokers could lead to greater success rates if quit attempts are made, however cross-country differences in smoking behaviours and quitting intentions could lead to the TPD ban on cigarette flavours having differential impact if not accompanied by additional measures, such as smoking cessation support.[download PDF]
Objective: To assess trends in daily smokers' social norms and opinions of smoking between 2002 and 2015 in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.
Method: Data were from wave 1 (2002) to wave 9 (2013–2015) of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia), involving 23 831 adult daily smokers. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics and survey design effects, assessed associations of wave and country with outcomes: (A) over half of five closest friends smoke, (B) agreeing that people important to you believe you should not smoke, (C) agreeing that society disapproves of smoking, and (D) negative opinion of smoking.
Results: Between 2002 and 2015, adjusting for covariates, (A) over half of five closest friends smoke did not change (56% vs. 55%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.95 [95% Confidence Interval = 0.85–1.07]), (B) agreeing that people important to you believe you should not smoke generally decreased (89% vs. 82%; AOR = 0.54 [0.46–0.64]) despite an increase around 2006–2007, (C) agreeing that society disapproves of smoking increased between 2002 and 2006–2007 (83% vs. 87%; AOR = 1.38 [1.24–1.54]) then decreased until 2013–2015 (78%; AOR = 0.74 [0.63–0.88]), and (D) negative opinion of smoking decreased between 2002 and 2010–2011 (54% vs. 49%; AOR = 0.83 [0.75–0.91]) despite an increase around 2005–2006 and at the final wave (2013–2015). Except friend smoking, Canada had the greatest, and the United Kingdom the lowest, antismoking social norms and opinions.
Conclusions: Except friend smoking and opinion of smoking, daily smokers' social norms became less antismoking between 2002 and 2015 despite increases around 2006–2007. Several potential explanations are discussed yet remain undetermined.
Implications: Increasingly comprehensive tobacco control policies alongside decreasing smoking prevalence in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia have led to the assumption that smoking has become denormalized in these countries. Absent from the literature is any formal assessment of social norms towards smoking over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, this study found that the injunctive social norms of daily smokers became less antismoking between 2002 and 2015, despite increases around 2006–2007. There was no change over time in the proportion of daily smokers who report that over half of their five closest friends smoke.[download PDF]
Nargis, et al. 2019. Socioeconomic patterns of smoking cessation behavior in low and middle-income countries: Emerging evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys and International Tobacco Control Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: Tobacco smoking is often more prevalent among those with lower socio-economic status (SES) in high-income countries, which can be driven by the inequalities in initiation and cessation of smoking. Smoking is a leading contributor to socio-economic disparities in health. To date, the evidence for any socio-economic inequality in smoking cessation is lacking, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examined the association between cessation behaviours and SES of smokers from eight LMICs.
Methods: Data among former and current adult smokers aged 18 and older came from contemporaneous Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (2008–2011) and the International Tobacco Control Surveys (2009–2013) conducted in eight LMICs (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand and Uruguay). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of successful quitting in the past year by SES indicators (household income/wealth, education, employment status, and rural-urban residence) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression controlling for socio-demographics and average tobacco product prices. A random effects meta-analysis was used to combine the estimates of AORs pooled across countries and two concurrent surveys for each country.
Results: Estimated quit rates among smokers (both daily and occasional) varied widely across countries. Meta-analysis of pooled AORs across countries and data sources indicated that there was no clear evidence of an association between SES indicators and successful quitting. The only exception was employed smokers, who were less likely to quit than their non-employed counterparts, which included students, homemakers, retirees, and the unemployed (pooled AOR≈0.8, p<0.10).
Conclusion: Lack of clear evidence of the impact of lower SES on adult cessation behaviour in LMICs suggests that lower-SES smokers are not less successful in their attempts to quit than their higher-SES counterparts. Specifically, lack of employment, which is indicative of younger age and lower nicotine dependence for students, or lower personal disposable income and lower affordability for the unemployed and the retirees, may be associated with quitting. Raising taxes and prices of tobacco products that lowers affordability of tobacco products might be a key strategy for inducing cessation behaviour among current smokers and reducing overall tobacco consumption. Because low-SES smokers are more sensitive to price increases, tobacco taxation policy can induce disproportionately larger decreases in tobacco consumption among them and help reduce socio-economic disparities in smoking and consequent health outcomes.[download PDF]
Levy, et al. 2019. Altria-Juul Labs deal: why did it occur and what does it mean for the US nicotine delivery product market [access full article]
No abstract is available.[download PDF]
2019. Youth self-reported exposure to and perceptions of vaping advertisments: Findings from the 2017 International Tobacco Control Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Countries have adopted various regulations to limit youth exposure to vaping product advertising. This study aims to examine youth exposure to and perceptions of vaping ads in Canada, England, and the US, three countries with varying vaping product advertising regulations. Data were analyzed from the 2017 ITC Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey, an online survey of youth aged 16 to 19 years from a consumer panel (n = 12,064). The survey assessed vaping product ad exposure in the prior month, including channels, perceived appeal, and perceived target audience. Most young people reported some vaping product ad exposure in the past 30 days (Canada = 74%, England = 83%, US = 81%). Among those exposed to vaping product ads, more than one-third found them appealing (Canada = 36%, England = 38%, US = 43%). Stores that sell cigarettes were the most common venue for vaping ad exposure, although it was less common in Canada (46%) than in England (60%) or the US (60%), both of which had less restrictive regulatory environments. Ad exposure through websites or social media did not differ by country (Canada = 38%, England = 40%, US = 41%). Compared to those who never smoked or used vaping products, youth who reported smoking and/or vaping were more likely to report ad exposure through most channels. More than one-third of youth perceived that vaping product ads target non-smokers (Canada = 47%, England = 36%, US = 48%). Our study suggests most youth are exposed to vaping product ads, which may promote product use. Except for online channels, cross-country differences in the channels of ad exposure may reflect contrasting regulatory environments.[download PDF]
Kaai, et al. 2019. Identifying factors associated with quit intentions among smokers from two nationally representative samples in Africa: Findings from the ITC Kenya and Zambia Surveys [access full article]
It is well established that intentions to quit smoking is the strongest predictor of future quit attempts. However, most studies on quit intentions have been conducted in high-income countries with very few in low- and middle-income countries particularly in Africa. This is the first population-based study to compare factors associated with quit intentions among smokers in two African countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Kenya and Zambia Surveys (2012), face-to-face surveys of nationally representative samples of 2291 adult smokers (Kenya = 1103; Zambia = 1188). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of quit intentions. Most Kenyan (65.1%) and Zambian (69.1%) smokers had quit intentions of which 54.8% planned to quit within the next 6 months. Five factors were significantly associated with quit intentions in both countries: being younger, having tried to quit previously, perceiving that quitting is beneficial to health, worrying about future health consequences of smoking, and being low in nicotine dependence. The predictive strength of these factors did not differ in the two countries. Four additional factors were significant predictors in Zambia only: having a quit attempt lasting six months or more, lower smoking enjoyment, having a negative opinion about smoking, and concern about cigarette expenses. The factors predicting quit intentions were similar to those in other ITC countries including Canada, US, UK, China and Mauritius. These findings highlight the need for stronger tobacco control policies in Kenya and Zambia including increased taxation, greater access to cessation services, and anti-smoking campaigns denormalizing tobacco use.[download PDF]
McKiernan, et al. 2019. Beliefs among Adult Smokers and Quitters about Nicotine and De-nicotinized Cigarettes in the 2016-17 ITC New Zealand Survey [access full article]
Objectives: We sought to explore understanding of addiction and nicotine, as well as support and interest in low-nicotine cigarettes among New Zealand (NZ) smokers and recent quitters.
Methods: Data came from wave 1 (August 2016-April 2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) NZ Survey, comprising 1090 smokers and recent quitters, including 363 identifying as Māori (the NZ indigenous population).
Results: Most participants (74%) were interested in trying low-nicotine or nicotine-free cigarettes and 80% supported introducing a law to reduce nicotine in cigarettes and tobacco if nicotine was available through alternative products. Support was similar among demographic groups, smokers, recent quitters, and daily and occasional smokers. Nearly all participants believed smoking is addictive and nicotine is the major cause of addiction. Almost half erroneously thought nicotine is the main cause of cancer from cigarettes.
Conclusions: Findings suggest that introducing mandated low-nicotine cigarettes could be feasible in NZ where alternative nicotine delivery products are widely available. However, implementation may need to be accompanied by public education to correct misperceptions about the harmfulness of nicotine and to encourage switching to alternative nicotine delivery products among smokers who cannot quit nicotine completely.[download PDF]
Levy, et al. 2019. An Examination of the Variation in Estimates of E-Cigarette Prevalence among U.S. Adults [access full article]
Introduction: Accurate estimates of e-cigarette use are needed to gauge its impact on public health. We compared the results of online and traditional, large scale surveys and provide additional estimates from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) survey, with the aim of assessing the extent of variation in prevalence estimates.
Materials and Methods: We searched the peer-reviewed literature for nationally representative estimates of U.S. adult e-cigarette prevalence, and developed our own estimates from waves one, two, and three of the PATH survey. We compared estimates by age, gender, cigarette smoking status, and e-cigarette use intensity both between online and traditional surveys and among the traditional surveys.
Results: For specific years, online surveys generally yielded higher adult use rates than most traditional surveys, but considerable variation was found among traditional surveys. E-cigarette prevalence was greater for less intensive than for more intensive use. Levels of use were higher among current and recent former cigarette smokers than among former smokers of longer quit duration and never smokers, and by those of younger ages.
Conclusions: Considerable variation in e-cigarette use estimates was observed even for a specific year. Further study is needed to uncover the source of variation in e-cigarette prevalence measures, with a view towards developing measures that best explain regular use and transitions between the use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products.[download PDF]
van Mourik, et al. 2019. Did E-Cigarette Users Notice the New European Union’s E-Cigarette Legislation? Findings from the 2015–2017 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey [access full article]
This study examined to what extent e-cigarette users noticed the European Union’s new legislation regarding e-cigarettes, and whether this may have influenced perceptions regarding addictiveness and toxicity. Data were obtained from yearly surveys (2015–2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied. About a third of the e-cigarette users noticed the text warning (28%) and the leaflet (32%). When compared to tobacco-only smokers, e-cigarette users showed greater increases in perceptions regarding addictiveness (β = 0.457, p = 0.045 vs. β = 0.135, p < 0.001) and toxicity (β = 0.246, p = 0.055 vs. β = 0.071, p = 0.010). In conclusion, the new legislation’s noticeability should be increased.[download PDF]
Park, et al. 2019. Attitudes of Korean smokers toward smoke-free public places: findings from the longitudinal ITC Korea Survey, 2005-2010 [access full article]
Objective: Prior to December 2012, restaurants in South Korea were required to implement only partial smoking bans. This study documents the changes in Korean smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans between 2005 and 2010 and explores the effects of anti-smoking advertising as a correlate of support for total smoking bans in public places.
Design: Longitudinal cohort study of Korean adult smokers.
Settomg: The data were derived from three waves (2005, 2008 and 2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Korea Survey.
Participants: The ITC Korea Survey respondents were a probability-based, nationally representative sample of Korean smokers aged 19 and older. The current analysis includes 995 smokers who participated in Wave 1 (2005), 1737 smokers who participated in Wave 2 (2008) and 1560 smokers who participated in Wave 3 (2010).
Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: Changes in respondents' awareness of secondhand smoke (SHS) harm, attitudes towards smoking bans and personal rules for smoking in private homes and/or vehicles were analysed. Correlates of support for smoking bans in public places were examined using generalised estimating equation regression models.
Results: More than 80% of Korean smokers are aware of the harms of SHS. The proportion of smokers who support smoke-free restaurants or smoke-free bars increased twofold between 2005 and 2010. Smokers who were aware of the dangers of SHS were more likely to support a total smoking ban in workplaces. Noticing anti-smoking advertising or information was not significantly associated with support for a total smoking ban in public places.
Conclusions: Korean smokers became more supportive of smoking bans in public places between 2005 and 2008. These results show that smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans can change with the implementation of smoke-free policies, even in a country that has a high prevalence of smokers.[download PDF]
Passos, et al. 2019. Dynamic, data-driven typologies of long-term smoking, cessation and their correlates: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey [access full article]
Rationale: Efforts towards tobacco control are numerous, but relapse rates for smoking cessations remain high. Behavioral changes necessary for continuous cessation appear complex, variable and subject to social, biological, psychological and environmental determinants. Currently, most cessation studies concentrate on short-to midterm behavioral changes. Besides, they use fixed typologies, thereby failing to capture the temporal changes in smoking/cessation behaviors, and its determinants.
Objective: To obtain long-term, data-driven longitudinal patterns or profiles of smoking, cessation, and related determinants in a cohort of adult smokers, and to investigate their dynamic links. Methods: The dataset originated from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Project, waves 2008 to 2016. Temporal dynamics of smoking/cessation, psychosocial constructs, and time-varying determinants of smoking were extracted with Group-Based Trajectory Modeling technique. Their associations were investigated via multiple regression models.
Results: Substantial heterogeneity of smoking and cessation behaviors was unveiled. Most respondents were classified as persistent smokers, albeit with distinct levels of consumption. For a minority, cessation could be sustained between 1 and 8 years, while others showed relapsing or fluctuating smoking behavior. Links between smoking/cessation trajectories with those of psychosocial and sociodemographic variables were diverse. Notably, changes in two variables were aligned to behavioral changes towards cessation: decreasing number of smoking peers and attaining a higher self-perceived control.
Conclusion: The unveiled heterogeneity of smoking behavior over time and the varied cross-dependencies between smoking data-driven typologies and those of underlying risk factors underscore the need of individually tailored approaches for motivational quitting.[download PDF]
Driezen, et al. 2019. State-level affordability of factory-made cigarettes among current US smokers: Findings from the ITC US Survey, 2003-2015 [access full article]
Cigarette affordability measures the price smokers pay for cigarettes in relation to their incomes. Affordability can be measured using the relative income price of cigarettes (RIP), or the price smokers pay to purchase 100 packs of 20 cigarettes divided by their per capita household income. Using longitudinal data from 7046 smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey, the purpose of this study was to test whether affordability significantly changed following the US federal tax increase implemented on 1 April 2009. This study also estimated temporal trends in affordability from 2003–2015 at state and national levels using small area estimation methods and segmented linear mixed effects regression models. RIP increased slightly during 2003–2008. This was followed by a 30% increase during 2008–2010, indicating cigarettes were less affordable after the federal tax increase. RIP continued to increase during 2010–2013 but decreased during 2013–2015, suggesting cigarettes have recently become more affordable for US smokers. State-level trends in RIP were consistent with overall national trends. Controlling for other factors, a $1 increase in the state excise tax was significantly associated with a 9% increase in RIP, indicating state taxes reduced affordability. Tax-induced price increases must keep pace with underlying economic conditions to ensure cigarettes do not become more affordable over time.[download PDF]
Sharma, et al. 2019. Awareness and interest in lung cancer screening among current and former smokers: Findings from the ITC United States Survey [access full article]
Purpose: To examine the awareness of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening among a population of current and former smokers using a nationally representative sample from the United States.
Methods: Data for this study come from Wave 9 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2015. Among respondents age ≥ 40 (n = 1145), a 50% random sample were asked a series of questions pertaining to lung cancer screening. This study examines awareness and screening behaviors in relationship to demographic characteristics of respondents, health beliefs, psychosocial behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Descriptive tables and χ2 tests were used to examine the association between those who were aware and unaware. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, stratified on respondents’ smoking status. Data were weighed to be representative of the current smoking population in the US.
Results: Overall, 52% of current and former smokers reported being aware of lung cancer screening. Among the group with no prior screening, 80.6% said they would take a lung cancer screening exam if recommended by their physician. In the multivariate models, former smokers had significantly greater awareness of lung cancer screening compared to current smokers [odds ratio 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.03, 1.97)].
Conclusions: Awareness of LDCT lung cancer screening was lower among current smokers compared to former smokers. Most smokers who had not ever been screened said they would have lung cancer screening if it were recommended by their physician, demonstrating the need for healthcare providers to encourage those eligible for screening to[download PDF]
Hammond, et al. 2019. Prevalence of vaping and smoking among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States: repeat national cross-sectional surveys [access full article]
Objective: To examine differences in vaping and smoking prevalence among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States.
Design: Repeat cross sectional surveys.
Setting: Online surveys in Canada, England, and the US.
Participants: National samples of 16 to 19 year olds in 2017 and 2018, recruited from commercial panels in Canada (n=7891), England (n=7897), and the US (n=8140).
Main outcome measures: Prevalence of vaping and smoking was assessed for use ever, in the past 30 days, in the past week, and on 15 days or more in the past month. Use of JUUL (a nicotine salt based electronic cigarette with high nicotine concentration) and usual vaping brands were also assessed. Logistic regression models examined differences in vaping and smoking between countries and over time.
Results: The prevalence of vaping in the past 30 days, in the past week, and on 15 days or more in the past month increased in Canada and the US between 2017 and 2018 (P<0.001 for all), including among non-smokers and experimental smokers, with no changes in England. Smoking prevalence increased in Canada (P<0.001 for all measures), with modest increases in England, and no changes in the US. The percentage of ever vapers who reported more frequent vaping increased in Canada and the US (P<0.01 for all), but not in England. The use of JUUL increased in all countries, particularly the US and Canada—for example, the proportion of current vapers in the US citing JUUL as their usual brand increased threefold between 2017 and 2018.
Conclusions: Between 2017 and 2018, among 16 to 19 year olds the prevalence of vaping increased in Canada and the US, as did smoking in Canada, with little change in England. The rapidly evolving vaping market and emergence of nicotine salt based products warrant close monitoring.[download PDF]
2019. Cross-country comparison of cigarette and vaping product marketing exposure and use: Findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Objective: To compare exposure to and use of certain cigarette and vaping product marketing among adult smokers and vapers in four countries with contrasting regulations—Australia (AU), Canada, England and the USA.
Data sources: Adult smokers and vapers (n=12 294) from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (4CV1).
Analysis: Self-reported exposure to cigarette and vaping product advertising through point-of-sale, websites/social media, emails/texts, as well as exposure to and use of price offers were assessed for country differences using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple covariates.
Results: Reported exposure to cigarette advertising exposure at point-of-sale was higher in the USA (52.1%) than in AU, Canada and England (10.5%–18.5%). Exposure to cigarette advertising on websites/social media and emails/texts was low overall (1.5%–10.4%). Reported exposure to vaping ads at point-of-sale was higher in England (49.3%) and USA (45.9%) than in Canada (32.5%), but vaping ad exposure on websites/social media in Canada (15.1%) was similar with England (18.4%) and the USA (12.1%). Exposure to vaping ads via emails/texts was low overall (3.1%–9.9%). Exposure to, and use of, cigarette price offers was highest in the USA (34.0 % and 17.8 %, respectively), but the use rate among those exposed was highest in AU (64.9%). Exposure to, and use of, price offers for vaping products was higher in the USA (42.3 % and 21.7 %) than in AU, Canada and England (25.9%–31.5 % and 7.4%–10.3 %).
Conclusions: Patterns of cigarette and vaping product marketing exposure generally reflected country-specific policies, except for online vaping ads. Implications for research and policy are discussed.[download PDF]
Craig, et al. 2019. The impact of the WHO FCTC on tobacco control: Perspectives from stakeholders in 12 countries. [access full article]
Background: The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the first WHO treaty, entered into force in 2005. In April 2015, a seven-member independent expert group (EG) was established by a decision of the FCTC Conference of the Parties to assess the impact of the Treaty in its first decade. One component of the EG’s methodology was to gather evidence on WHO FCTC impact from Parties themselves. This paper presents findings from 12 country missions on how the FCTC impacted progress on tobacco control.
Methods: Between November 2015 and May 2016, EG members conducted missions in 12 countries representing each of the six WHO regions and the four World Bank economic development levels. In each country, the EG interviewed a broad range of stakeholders to assess the extent to which the FCTC had contributed to tobacco control. The primary objective was to assess whether tobacco control measures would have been developed or passed, or implemented at all, or as quickly, if there had been no FCTC. Through this counterfactual inquiry, the EG sought to determine the FCTC’s causal role.
Conclusion: The FCTC was reported to have made contributions along the entire policy/regulation process: the development of a measure, building legislative and political support for a measure and its implementation. These stakeholder perspectives support the conclusion that the FCTC has played a pivotal role in accelerating and strengthening the implementation of tobacco control measures, although tobacco industry interference continues to be a significant obstacle to further advancement.[download PDF]
This study examines whether having health conditions or concerns related to smoking is associated with use of vaping products. Data came from the 2016 wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Smokers and recent quitters (n = 11,344) were asked whether they had a medical diagnosis for nine health conditions (i.e., depression, anxiety, alcohol problems, severe obesity, chronic pain, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and chronic lung disease) and concerns about past and future health effects of smoking, and their vaping activities. Respondents with depression and alcohol problems were more likely to be current vapers both daily (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 1.42, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.09–1.85, p < 0.05 for depression; and AOR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.02–2.27, p < 0.05 for alcohol) and monthly (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.11–1.57 for depression, p < 0.01; and AOR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.06–1.90, p < 0.05 for alcohol). Vaping was more likely at monthly level for those with severe obesity (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.43, p < 0.001), cancer (AOR = 5.19, 95% CI 2.20–12.24, p < 0.001), and concerns about future effects of smoking (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.47–2.28, p < 0.001). Positive associations were also found between chronic pain and concerns about past health effects of smoking and daily vaping. Only having heart disease was, in this case negatively, associated with use of vaping products on their last quit attempt (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.43–0.91, p < 0.05). Self-reported health condition or reduced health associated with smoking is not systematically leading to increased vaping or increased likelihood of using vaping as a quitting strategy.[download PDF]
Background: In 2009, the China National Tobacco Company (CNTC) began their Premiumization Strategy, designed to encourage smokers to trade up to more expensive brands, mainly by promoting the concept that higher class cigarettes are better quality and less harmful. This study is the first evaluation of the strategy’s impact on: (1) prevalence of premium brand cigarettes (PBC), mid-priced brand cigarettes (MBC) and discount brand cigarettes (DBC) over 9 years, from 3 years pre-strategy (2006) to 6 years post-strategy (2015); and (2) changes in reasons for choosing PBCs, MBCs and DBCs.
Methods: A representative cohort of adult Chinese smokers (n=9047) in seven cities who participated in five waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey: pre-implementation (Wave 1 (2006; n=3452), Wave 2 (2007–2008; n=3586)); mid-implementation (Wave 3 (2009; n=4172)); and post-implementation (Wave 4 (2011–2012; n=4070), Wave 5 (2013–2015; n=2775)). Generalised estimating equations were conducted to examine changes in prevalence of PBCs, MBCs and DBCs, and reasons for brand choice from pre-implementation to post-implementation.
Results: From pre-implementation to post-implementation, there was an increase in prevalence of PBCs (5.4% to 23.2%, p<0.001) and MBCs (40.0% to 50.4%, p<0.001), and a decrease in DBCs (54.6% to 26.5%, p<0.001). There was an increase in smokers who chose their current brand because they believed it to be less harmful, both for MBC smokers (+13.0%, p=0.001) and PBC smokers (+9.0%, p=0.06). There was an increase for smokers in all brand classes for choosing their current brand because they were ‘higher in quality’ and because of affordable price, but the greatest increase was among PBC smokers (+18.6%, p<0.001 and +34.9%, p<0.001, respectively).
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the rising trend in Chinese smokers’ choice of ‘less harmful’, ‘higher quality’ and ‘affordable’ cigarettes, particularly PBCs, is likely due to CNTC’s aggressive marketing strategies. Strong tobacco control policies that prohibit CNTC’s marketing activities are critical in order to dispel erroneous beliefs that sustain continued smoking in China, where the global tobacco epidemic is exerting its greatest toll.[download PDF]
Ngo, et al. 2019. Analysis of gender differences in the impact of taxation and taxation structure on cigarette consumption in 17 ITC countries [access full article]
Although increasing taxes has been established as the most effective tobacco control policy, it is not clear whether these policies reduce cigarette consumption equally among women and men. In this study, we examine whether the association between taxation/taxation structure and cigarette consumption differs by gender. The data is from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Projects in 17 countries. Cigarette consumption was measured by gender for each ITC country. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to investigate gender differences in the association between cigarette consumption and tax structures, while controlling for time-variant demographic characteristics such as unemployment rates, proportions of adults, and percent of female population. Tiered tax structures are associated with higher cigarette consumption among both males and females. Female smokers are more responsive to an average tax increase than male smokers. Among males, higher ad valorem share in excise taxes is associated with lower cigarette consumption, but it is not the case for females. Females may not be as responsive to the prices raised by ad valorem taxes, despite being responsive to average taxes, suggesting that smokers by gender may face different prices.[download PDF]
Demjén, et al. 2019. The purchase sources of and price paid for cigarettes in six European countries: Findings from the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: Tobacco tax policies have been proven to be effective in reducing tobacco consumption, but their impact can be mitigated through price-minimizing behaviours among smokers. This study explored the purchase sources of tobacco products and the price paid for tobacco products in six EU member states.
Methods: Data from Wave 1 of the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Survey collected from nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Spain (ITC 6E Survey) were used. The ITC 6E Survey sample, conducted in 2016, randomly sampled 6011 adult cigarette smokers aged 18 years or older. Information on purchase sources of tobacco was examined by country. The difference in reported purchase price by purchase location (store vs non-store/other) was analysed using linear regression for each country.
Results: Tobacco purchasing patterns and sources varied widely between countries. Non-store/other purchases were very rare in Hungary (0.1%) while these types of purchases were more common in Germany (5.1%) and Poland (8.6%). Reported prices of one standard pack of 20 cigarettes were highest in Germany (4.80€) and lowest in Hungary (2.45€). While nonstore purchases were only made by a minority of smokers (>10% in all countries), the price differential was considerable between store and non-store/other sources, up to 2€ per pack in Greece and in Germany.
Conclusions: The results suggest a huge variation of purchasing sources and price differentials between store and non-store purchasing sources across the six EU member states examined. While the cross-sectional data precludes any causal inference, supply chain control through licensing as introduced in Hungary and the lack of such measures in the other countries might nevertheless be a plausible explanation for the large differences in the frequency of non-store purchases observed in this study.[download PDF]
Introduction: Having a chronic disease either caused or worsened by tobacco smoking does not always translate into quitting smoking. Although smoking cessation is one of the most cost-effective medical interventions, it remains poorly implemented in healthcare settings. The aim was to examine whether smokers with chronic and respiratory diseases were more likely to receive support to quit smoking by a healthcare provider or make a quit attempt than smokers without these diseases.
Methods: This population-based study included a sample of 6011 adult smokers in six European countries. The participants were interviewed face-to-face and asked questions on sociodemographic characteristics, current diagnoses for chronic diseases, healthcare visits in the last 12 months and, if so, whether they had received any support to quit smoking. Questions on smoking behavior included nicotine dependence, motivation to quit smoking and quit attempts in the last 12 months. The results are presented as weighted percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and as adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI based on logistic regression analyses.
Results: Smokers with chronic respiratory disease, those aged 55 years and older, as well as those with one or more chronic diseases were more likely to receive smoking cessation advice from a healthcare professional. Making a quit attempt in the last year was related to younger age, high educational level, higher motivation to quit, lower nicotine dependence and having received advice to quit from a healthcare professional but not with having chronic diseases. There were significant differences between countries with smokers in Romania consistently reporting more support to quit as well as quit attempts.
Conclusions: Although smokers with respiratory disease did indeed receive smoking cessation support more often than smokers without disease, many smokers did not receive any advice or support to quit during a healthcare visit.[download PDF]
Driezen, et al. 2019. Cross-border purchasing of cigarettes among smokers in six countries of the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: The availability of lower-cost cigarettes in neighboring countries provides price-sensitive smokers with incentives to purchase cheaper out-of-country cigarettes. This study estimates the prevalence of and factors associated with cross-border purchasing of cheaper cigarettes among smokers from Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Spain. The prevalence of cross-border purchasing was estimated by residential location, defined as living in regions bordering a lower-price country (where prices were at least €1/pack lower), regions bordering a similar- or higher-price country, and internal non-border regions.
Methods: Data were from a survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers (n=6011) from Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Spain. The primary outcome was purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes in the previous six months. Residential location was defined using The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS2 in Germany and NUTS3 in the other countries). Multivariable logistic regression tested differences in purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes by country and residential location.
Results: Residential location was associated with purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes in Germany and Poland (p<0.05): 31% of German and 11% of Polish smokers living in regions bordering lower-price countries reported purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes in the previous six months. Smokers living in regions bordering lower-price countries had 4.21 times greater odds of purchasing cheaper out-of-country cigarettes compared to smokers living in non-border regions. Conclusions: Overall, only a minority of smokers in the six countries purchased cheaper cigarettes outside their country. However, smokers living in regions bordering countries where cigarettes were at least €1/pack lower than their home country had significantly higher odds of purchasing cheaper out-ofcountry cigarettes. This effect was especially prominent among German smokers. Tax harmonization policies designed to minimize crossborder price differentials can eliminate lower-priced alternatives for price-sensitive smokers.[download PDF]