Scientific Journal Articles
Showing 76-100 of 605 Results
Cummings , et al. 2019. Predicting the future of smoking in a rapidly evolving nicotine market-place [access full article]
No abstract is available.[download PDF]
Nahhas, et al. 2019. Rules about smoking and vaping in the home: Findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Aims: To examine rules about smoking and vaping in the home in relation to beliefs about the relative harm of second-hand vapor (SHV) compared with second-hand smoke (SHS) in four countries: Canada, United States, England and Australia.
Design: Data were available from 12 294 adults (18+) who participated in the 2016 (wave 1) International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping (ITC 4CV1) Survey.
Participants: All participants were current or recent former adult smokers.
Measurements: Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression on rules about smoking and vaping in the home; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported, adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables.
Findings: Of all respondents, 37.4% allowed smoking inside their home. Among a subset who were current vapers (n = 6135), 60.4% allowed vaping in their homes. After controlling for demographic and behavioral characteristics, beliefs about the harm of SHV compared with SHS was not associated with allowing smoking in the home, but was associated with allowing vaping in the home [odds ratio (OR) = 2.86 in Canada, OR = 1.82 in the United States and OR = 1.68 in England]. Characteristics that were associated with rules about vaping inside the home included daily vaping (OR = 2.95, 2.04-4.26; OR = 7.00, 4.12-11.87; OR = 5.50, 3.40-8.88; OR = 7.78, 1.90-31.80), living with a spouse who vapes (OR = 2.48, 1.54-3.98; OR = 2.69, 1.42-5.11; OR = 4.67, 2.74-7.95; OR = 21.82, 2.16-220.9) and living with children aged under 18 years (OR = 0.50, 0.37-0.68; OR = 0.89, 0.48-1.65; OR = 0.76, 0.53-1.09; OR = 0.26, = 0.11-0.61) in Canada, the United States, England and Australia, respectively. Similar characteristics were associated with rules about smoking inside the home.
Conclusions: Among current and former smokers in 2016 in Canada, the United States, England and Australia, 37.4% allowed smoking in the home; 60.4% of current vapers allowed vaping. Both concurrent users and exclusive vapers were more likely to allow vaping than smoking inside the home. Allowing vaping inside the home was correlated with the belief that second-hand vapor is less harmful than second-hand smoke.[download PDF]
O'Connor, et al. 2019. Characteristics of nicotine vaping products used by participants in the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Background and Aims: The regulatory environment for nicotine vaping products (NVPs) varies widely across countries and this will probably affect the devices used, nicotine content and usage, and hence the ability of NVPs to substitute for cigarettes. We aimed to describe the types of NVPs used by current vapers in four countries with varying regulatory and enforcement approaches toward the marketing and sale of NVPs.
Methods: Data are from wave 1 (July–November 2016) of the ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (4CV1), conducted among a cohort of current and former smokers, and current NVP users (n = 5147 adults; ≥ 18 years) in Australia (AU), Canada (CA), England (EN) and the United States (US) reporting either current daily, weekly or occasional NVP use. Devices were described by type, brand, voltage variability and refill capacity. Refill solutions were described by flavour and nicotine content. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were conducted on the overall sample and stratified by country. A multinomial logistic regression examined factors associated with device preference across the whole sample.
Results: The types of NVPs used differed by pattern of use and country. Exclusive, daily vapers were more likely to use refillable pen‐shaped devices [odds ratio (OR) = 10.0] or refillable box‐shaped devices (OR = 5.4) than disposable cigalike devices, when compared with other (non‐daily/dual) users. Nearly all respondents reported using flavoured NVPs, fruit (28.3%) being the most common flavour. Refillable devices were the most popular: refillable box‐shaped devices were more commonly reported by vapers in AU (36.8%) and US (31.4%), whereas in EN (47.4%) and CA (29.7%), vapers more often reported using refillable pen‐style devices. Most users also reported that their products contained nicotine, even in CA (87.8%) and AU (91.2%), where vaping products containing nicotine were technically illegal.
Conclusions: In Australia, Canada, England and the United States in 2016, refillable nicotine vaping products were the most common type of nicotine vaping products used by daily vapers. Most daily vapers reported using flavoured e‐liquids/refills (with variance across countries) and most reported using products that contain nicotine, even where vaping products with nicotine were banned.[download PDF]
McNeill, et al. 2019. Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: Findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Background and Aims: It has been proposed that many smokers switch to vaping because their nicotine addiction makes this their only viable route out of smoking. We compared indicators of prior and current cigarette smoking dependence and of relapse in former smokers who were daily users of nicotine vaping products (‘vapers’) or who were not vaping at the time of survey (‘non‐vapers’).
Design: Cross‐sectional survey‐based comparison between vaping and non‐vaping former smokers, including a weighted logistic regression of vaping status onto predictor variables, adjusting for covariates specified below.
Setting: United States, Canada, Australia and England.
Participants: A total of 1070 people aged 18+ years from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey who reported having ever been daily smokers but who stopped less than 2 years ago and who were currently vapers or non‐vapers.
Measurements: Dependent variable was current vaping status. Predictor variables were self‐reported: (1) smoking within 5 minutes of waking and usual daily cigarette consumption, both assessed retrospectively; (2) current perceived addiction to smoking, urges to smoke and confidence in staying quit. Covariates: country, sample sources, sex, age group, ethnicity, income, education, current nicotine replacement therapy use and time since quitting.
Findings: Vapers were more likely than non‐vapers to report: (1) having smoked within 5 minutes of waking [34.3 versus 15.9%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99, 7.03), χ2 = 16.92, P < 0.001]; having smoked > 10 cigarettes/day (74.4 versus 47.2%, aOR = 4.39, 95% CI = 2.22, 8.68), χ2 = 18.18, P < 0.001); (2) perceiving themselves to be still very addicted to smoking (41.3 versus 26.2%, aOR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.58, 5.30, χ2 = 11.87, P < 0.001) and feeling extremely confident about staying quit (62.1 versus 36.6%, aOR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.86, 5.59, χ2 = 17.36, P < 0.001). Vapers were not more likely to report any urges to smoke than non‐vapers (27.7 versus 38.8%, aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.65, χ2 = 0.21, P = 0.643).
Conclusions: While former smokers who currently vape nicotine daily report higher levels of cigarette smoking dependence pre‐ and post‐cessation compared with former smokers who are current non‐vapers, they report greater confidence in staying quit and similar strength of urges to smoke.[download PDF]
Herbec, et al. 2019. Dependence, plans to quit, quitting self-efficacy and past cessation behaviours among menthol and other flavoured cigarette users in Europe – The EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: This study characterises smoking and cessation related behaviours among menthol and other flavoured cigarette users in Europe prior to the implementation of the European Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) ban on the sale of flavoured cigarettes.
Methods: An analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2016 EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys was conducted among a sample of 10760 adult smokers from eight European Union Member States. Respondents were classified as menthol, other flavoured, unflavoured, or no usual flavour cigarette users and compared on smoking and cessation behaviours and characteristics. Data were analysed in SPSS Complex Samples Package using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, and country.
Results: In bivariate analyses, cigarette flavour was significantly associated with all outcomes (p<0.001). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, these associations attenuated but remained significant and in the same direction for dependence, self-efficacy, plans to quit, past quit attempts, and ever e-cigarette use. In fully adjusted models, compared to smokers of non-flavoured cigarettes, menthol smokers were less likely to smoke daily (AOR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.32–0.71), smoke within 30 min of waking (0.52,0.43–0.64), consider themselves addicted (0.74,0.59–0.94), and more likely to have ever used e-cigarettes (1.26,1.00–1.57); other flavoured cigarette smokers were less likely to smoke daily (0.33,0.15–0.77), and have higher self-efficacy (1.82,1.20–2.77); no usual flavour smokers were less likely to smoke daily (0.34,0.22–0.51), smoke within 30 min of waking (0.66,0.55–0.80), consider themselves addicted (0.65,0.52–0.78), have ever made a quit attempt (0.69,0.58– 0.84), have ever used e-cigarettes (0.66,0.54–0.82), and had higher self-efficacy (1.46,1.19–1.80).
Conclusions: Smokers of different cigarette flavours in Europe differ on smoking and cessation characteristics. The lower dependence of menthol cigarette smokers could lead to greater success rates if quit attempts are made, however cross-country differences in smoking behaviours and quitting intentions could lead to the TPD ban on cigarette flavours having differential impact if not accompanied by additional measures, such as smoking cessation support.[download PDF]
Objective: To assess trends in daily smokers' social norms and opinions of smoking between 2002 and 2015 in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.
Method: Data were from wave 1 (2002) to wave 9 (2013–2015) of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia), involving 23 831 adult daily smokers. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics and survey design effects, assessed associations of wave and country with outcomes: (A) over half of five closest friends smoke, (B) agreeing that people important to you believe you should not smoke, (C) agreeing that society disapproves of smoking, and (D) negative opinion of smoking.
Results: Between 2002 and 2015, adjusting for covariates, (A) over half of five closest friends smoke did not change (56% vs. 55%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.95 [95% Confidence Interval = 0.85–1.07]), (B) agreeing that people important to you believe you should not smoke generally decreased (89% vs. 82%; AOR = 0.54 [0.46–0.64]) despite an increase around 2006–2007, (C) agreeing that society disapproves of smoking increased between 2002 and 2006–2007 (83% vs. 87%; AOR = 1.38 [1.24–1.54]) then decreased until 2013–2015 (78%; AOR = 0.74 [0.63–0.88]), and (D) negative opinion of smoking decreased between 2002 and 2010–2011 (54% vs. 49%; AOR = 0.83 [0.75–0.91]) despite an increase around 2005–2006 and at the final wave (2013–2015). Except friend smoking, Canada had the greatest, and the United Kingdom the lowest, antismoking social norms and opinions.
Conclusions: Except friend smoking and opinion of smoking, daily smokers' social norms became less antismoking between 2002 and 2015 despite increases around 2006–2007. Several potential explanations are discussed yet remain undetermined.
Implications: Increasingly comprehensive tobacco control policies alongside decreasing smoking prevalence in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia have led to the assumption that smoking has become denormalized in these countries. Absent from the literature is any formal assessment of social norms towards smoking over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, this study found that the injunctive social norms of daily smokers became less antismoking between 2002 and 2015, despite increases around 2006–2007. There was no change over time in the proportion of daily smokers who report that over half of their five closest friends smoke.[download PDF]
Nargis, et al. 2019. Socioeconomic patterns of smoking cessation behavior in low and middle-income countries: Emerging evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys and International Tobacco Control Surveys [access full article]
Introduction: Tobacco smoking is often more prevalent among those with lower socio-economic status (SES) in high-income countries, which can be driven by the inequalities in initiation and cessation of smoking. Smoking is a leading contributor to socio-economic disparities in health. To date, the evidence for any socio-economic inequality in smoking cessation is lacking, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examined the association between cessation behaviours and SES of smokers from eight LMICs.
Methods: Data among former and current adult smokers aged 18 and older came from contemporaneous Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (2008–2011) and the International Tobacco Control Surveys (2009–2013) conducted in eight LMICs (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand and Uruguay). Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of successful quitting in the past year by SES indicators (household income/wealth, education, employment status, and rural-urban residence) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression controlling for socio-demographics and average tobacco product prices. A random effects meta-analysis was used to combine the estimates of AORs pooled across countries and two concurrent surveys for each country.
Results: Estimated quit rates among smokers (both daily and occasional) varied widely across countries. Meta-analysis of pooled AORs across countries and data sources indicated that there was no clear evidence of an association between SES indicators and successful quitting. The only exception was employed smokers, who were less likely to quit than their non-employed counterparts, which included students, homemakers, retirees, and the unemployed (pooled AOR≈0.8, p<0.10).
Conclusion: Lack of clear evidence of the impact of lower SES on adult cessation behaviour in LMICs suggests that lower-SES smokers are not less successful in their attempts to quit than their higher-SES counterparts. Specifically, lack of employment, which is indicative of younger age and lower nicotine dependence for students, or lower personal disposable income and lower affordability for the unemployed and the retirees, may be associated with quitting. Raising taxes and prices of tobacco products that lowers affordability of tobacco products might be a key strategy for inducing cessation behaviour among current smokers and reducing overall tobacco consumption. Because low-SES smokers are more sensitive to price increases, tobacco taxation policy can induce disproportionately larger decreases in tobacco consumption among them and help reduce socio-economic disparities in smoking and consequent health outcomes.[download PDF]
Levy, et al. 2019. Altria-Juul Labs deal: why did it occur and what does it mean for the US nicotine delivery product market [access full article]
No abstract is available.[download PDF]
2019. Youth self-reported exposure to and perceptions of vaping advertisments: Findings from the 2017 International Tobacco Control Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Countries have adopted various regulations to limit youth exposure to vaping product advertising. This study aims to examine youth exposure to and perceptions of vaping ads in Canada, England, and the US, three countries with varying vaping product advertising regulations. Data were analyzed from the 2017 ITC Youth Tobacco and Vaping Survey, an online survey of youth aged 16 to 19 years from a consumer panel (n = 12,064). The survey assessed vaping product ad exposure in the prior month, including channels, perceived appeal, and perceived target audience. Most young people reported some vaping product ad exposure in the past 30 days (Canada = 74%, England = 83%, US = 81%). Among those exposed to vaping product ads, more than one-third found them appealing (Canada = 36%, England = 38%, US = 43%). Stores that sell cigarettes were the most common venue for vaping ad exposure, although it was less common in Canada (46%) than in England (60%) or the US (60%), both of which had less restrictive regulatory environments. Ad exposure through websites or social media did not differ by country (Canada = 38%, England = 40%, US = 41%). Compared to those who never smoked or used vaping products, youth who reported smoking and/or vaping were more likely to report ad exposure through most channels. More than one-third of youth perceived that vaping product ads target non-smokers (Canada = 47%, England = 36%, US = 48%). Our study suggests most youth are exposed to vaping product ads, which may promote product use. Except for online channels, cross-country differences in the channels of ad exposure may reflect contrasting regulatory environments.[download PDF]
Kaai, et al. 2019. Identifying factors associated with quit intentions among smokers from two nationally representative samples in Africa: Findings from the ITC Kenya and Zambia Surveys [access full article]
It is well established that intentions to quit smoking is the strongest predictor of future quit attempts. However, most studies on quit intentions have been conducted in high-income countries with very few in low- and middle-income countries particularly in Africa. This is the first population-based study to compare factors associated with quit intentions among smokers in two African countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Kenya and Zambia Surveys (2012), face-to-face surveys of nationally representative samples of 2291 adult smokers (Kenya = 1103; Zambia = 1188). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of quit intentions. Most Kenyan (65.1%) and Zambian (69.1%) smokers had quit intentions of which 54.8% planned to quit within the next 6 months. Five factors were significantly associated with quit intentions in both countries: being younger, having tried to quit previously, perceiving that quitting is beneficial to health, worrying about future health consequences of smoking, and being low in nicotine dependence. The predictive strength of these factors did not differ in the two countries. Four additional factors were significant predictors in Zambia only: having a quit attempt lasting six months or more, lower smoking enjoyment, having a negative opinion about smoking, and concern about cigarette expenses. The factors predicting quit intentions were similar to those in other ITC countries including Canada, US, UK, China and Mauritius. These findings highlight the need for stronger tobacco control policies in Kenya and Zambia including increased taxation, greater access to cessation services, and anti-smoking campaigns denormalizing tobacco use.[download PDF]
McKiernan, et al. 2019. Beliefs among Adult Smokers and Quitters about Nicotine and De-nicotinized Cigarettes in the 2016-17 ITC New Zealand Survey [access full article]
Objectives: We sought to explore understanding of addiction and nicotine, as well as support and interest in low-nicotine cigarettes among New Zealand (NZ) smokers and recent quitters.
Methods: Data came from wave 1 (August 2016-April 2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) NZ Survey, comprising 1090 smokers and recent quitters, including 363 identifying as Māori (the NZ indigenous population).
Results: Most participants (74%) were interested in trying low-nicotine or nicotine-free cigarettes and 80% supported introducing a law to reduce nicotine in cigarettes and tobacco if nicotine was available through alternative products. Support was similar among demographic groups, smokers, recent quitters, and daily and occasional smokers. Nearly all participants believed smoking is addictive and nicotine is the major cause of addiction. Almost half erroneously thought nicotine is the main cause of cancer from cigarettes.
Conclusions: Findings suggest that introducing mandated low-nicotine cigarettes could be feasible in NZ where alternative nicotine delivery products are widely available. However, implementation may need to be accompanied by public education to correct misperceptions about the harmfulness of nicotine and to encourage switching to alternative nicotine delivery products among smokers who cannot quit nicotine completely.[download PDF]
Nahhas, et al. 2019. Cigarette brand preferences of adolescent and adult smokers in the United States, 2013-2014 [access full article]
Background: Despite restrictions on where and how cigarette companies can market their products, cigarettes remain a heavily advertised consumer product in America. Examining the brand preferences of smokers may provide clues to understanding how shifting consumer preferences and industry marketing strategies are influencing smoking related behaviors. This study presents estimates of cigarettes brand preferences of adolescents and adults in the United States. Objective: In this paper, we examine the brand preferences of smokers and how that relates to cigarette brand features in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Survey Wave-1 (September 2013-December 2014).
Methods: There were 32,320 adult and 13,651 youth participants in the survey. Analyses were restricted to current smokers who reported purchasing cigarettes, 10,493 adults and 282 youth. Frequencies, weighted percentages, and chi-square tests were reported.
Results: Respondents reported purchasing a total of 58 brands with many more brand name line extensions with a greater diversity of brands reported by adults compared to youth. Marlboro, Newport, Camel, and American Spirit accounted for >90% of the purchasing among youth, while accounting for about 70% among adults. Mentholated cigarettes were smoked by over 39% of youth and 38% of adults, particularly Hispanics and Blacks. Longer-length cigarette use was more commonly reported by females, and discounted brands were more commonly used by older and daily smokers.
Conclusions: Price discounting, cigarette length, use of menthol flavoring, age, and ethnicity were associated with cigarette brand preferences and purchases. Cigarette characteristics such as length, filtration, price, flavor, and general packaging could be regulated to limit the appeal of cigarettes to different sub-populations.[download PDF]
Levy, et al. 2019. An examination of the variation in estimates of e-cigarette prevalence among U.S. adults [access full article]
Introduction: Accurate estimates of e-cigarette use are needed to gauge its impact on public health. We compared the results of online and traditional, large scale surveys and provide additional estimates from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) survey, with the aim of assessing the extent of variation in prevalence estimates.
Materials and Methods: We searched the peer-reviewed literature for nationally representative estimates of U.S. adult e-cigarette prevalence, and developed our own estimates from waves one, two, and three of the PATH survey. We compared estimates by age, gender, cigarette smoking status, and e-cigarette use intensity both between online and traditional surveys and among the traditional surveys.
Results: For specific years, online surveys generally yielded higher adult use rates than most traditional surveys, but considerable variation was found among traditional surveys. E-cigarette prevalence was greater for less intensive than for more intensive use. Levels of use were higher among current and recent former cigarette smokers than among former smokers of longer quit duration and never smokers, and by those of younger ages.
Conclusions: Considerable variation in e-cigarette use estimates was observed even for a specific year. Further study is needed to uncover the source of variation in e-cigarette prevalence measures, with a view towards developing measures that best explain regular use and transitions between the use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products.[download PDF]
van Mourik, et al. 2019. Did e-cigarette users notice the new European Union’s e-cigarette legislation? Findings from the 2015–2017 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey [access full article]
This study examined to what extent e-cigarette users noticed the European Union’s new legislation regarding e-cigarettes, and whether this may have influenced perceptions regarding addictiveness and toxicity. Data were obtained from yearly surveys (2015–2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied. About a third of the e-cigarette users noticed the text warning (28%) and the leaflet (32%). When compared to tobacco-only smokers, e-cigarette users showed greater increases in perceptions regarding addictiveness (β = 0.457, p = 0.045 vs. β = 0.135, p < 0.001) and toxicity (β = 0.246, p = 0.055 vs. β = 0.071, p = 0.010). In conclusion, the new legislation’s noticeability should be increased.[download PDF]
Park, et al. 2019. Attitudes of Korean smokers toward smoke-free public places: findings from the longitudinal ITC Korea Survey, 2005-2010 [access full article]
Objective: Prior to December 2012, restaurants in South Korea were required to implement only partial smoking bans. This study documents the changes in Korean smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans between 2005 and 2010 and explores the effects of anti-smoking advertising as a correlate of support for total smoking bans in public places.
Design: Longitudinal cohort study of Korean adult smokers.
Settomg: The data were derived from three waves (2005, 2008 and 2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Korea Survey.
Participants: The ITC Korea Survey respondents were a probability-based, nationally representative sample of Korean smokers aged 19 and older. The current analysis includes 995 smokers who participated in Wave 1 (2005), 1737 smokers who participated in Wave 2 (2008) and 1560 smokers who participated in Wave 3 (2010).
Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures: Changes in respondents' awareness of secondhand smoke (SHS) harm, attitudes towards smoking bans and personal rules for smoking in private homes and/or vehicles were analysed. Correlates of support for smoking bans in public places were examined using generalised estimating equation regression models.
Results: More than 80% of Korean smokers are aware of the harms of SHS. The proportion of smokers who support smoke-free restaurants or smoke-free bars increased twofold between 2005 and 2010. Smokers who were aware of the dangers of SHS were more likely to support a total smoking ban in workplaces. Noticing anti-smoking advertising or information was not significantly associated with support for a total smoking ban in public places.
Conclusions: Korean smokers became more supportive of smoking bans in public places between 2005 and 2008. These results show that smokers' attitudes towards smoking bans can change with the implementation of smoke-free policies, even in a country that has a high prevalence of smokers.[download PDF]
Smith, et al. 2019. The impact of e-liquid propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin ratio on rating of subjective effects, reinforcements value, and use in current smokers [access full article]
Introduction: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) vary on a wide range of characteristics that may affect reinforcement value and use. One characteristic is the ratio of two solvents commonly used in most e-liquids: propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG). The goal of this study was to understand how PG/VG ratio affects subjective effects, reinforcement value, and tobacco use patterns among current smokers who try using ENDS.
Aims and methods: Current smokers with minimal ENDS use history (n = 30) sampled, in a double-blind fashion, three different e-liquids that varied in PG/VG ratio (70/30, 50/50, 0/100) while holding constant other aspects of the e-liquid and ENDS. Participants tried each e-liquid before rating the subjective effects on a modified version of the Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire. Reinforcement value was assessed using a preference task where participants chose between the three e-liquids. The impact of each e-liquid on cigarette reinforcement was assessed using a modified version of the Cigarette Purchase Task. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one e-liquid to take home for 1 week. Results: PG/VG ratio had minimal impact on most of the tested outcomes. Participants rated the highest PG concentration as having a stronger throat hit than the other two. There was no significant difference between the number of participants who preferred each of the PG/VG ratios in the preference assessment. PG/VG ratio did not affect cigarette or ENDS use during the sampling week.
Conclusions: These data suggest that PG/VG ratio has minimal impact on subjective effects and reinforcement value in ENDS naive current smokers. Implications: These data suggest that PG/VG ratio, within the range that is commonly used, has minimal impact on subjective effects, reinforcement value, or uptake in current smokers with minimal ENDS experience.[download PDF]
Sontag, et al. 2019. Baseline assessment of noticing e-cigarette health warnings among youth and young adults in the United States, Canada and England, and associations with harm perceptions, nicotine awareness and warning recall [access full article]
Health warnings on tobacco products can inform users of potential risks. However, little is known about young people's exposure to health warnings on e-cigarette products. This baseline assessment of young people's noticing e-cigarette warnings uses nationally representative data from three countries. Data were collected under Wave 1 of the ITC Youth Tobacco and E-cigarette Survey, conducted in Canada, England, and the US. Online surveys were completed by 16-19-year-olds in July/August 2017 (n = 12,064), when warnings were either newly required (England) or voluntarily carried by some manufacturers (US, Canada). Analyses examined prevalence and correlates of noticing warnings and associations between noticing warnings and product perceptions, adjusting for country, sex, age, race/ethnicity, and cigarette/e-cigarette use status. About 12% reported noticing warnings on e-cigarette packaging in the past 30 days. Noticing warnings was significantly more likely among youth in England (AOR = 1.3, p < .01) and the US (AOR = 1.3, p < .01) versus Canada, and was most likely among dual ecigarette/cigarette users (AOR = 4.69, p < .001) versus nonusers. Unaided recall of the keyword nicotine was low among those who noticed warnings (7.5%). However, ever e-cigarette users who noticed warnings had higher odds of knowing whether e-cigarettes contained nicotine (AOR = 2.26, p < .001). Noticing warnings was significantly associated with higher odds of believing e-cigarettes cause at least some harm to users (AOR = 1.19), are as harmful as cigarettes (AOR = 1.45), and can be addictive (AOR = 1.43). Baseline assessment reveals that youth's noticing of e-cigarette warnings and recall of nicotineaddiction messages was low. Research should track exposure over time as warning requirements are implemented across different countries.[download PDF]
Passos, et al. 2019. Dynamic, data-driven typologies of long-term smoking, cessation and their correlates: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey [access full article]
Rationale: Efforts towards tobacco control are numerous, but relapse rates for smoking cessations remain high. Behavioral changes necessary for continuous cessation appear complex, variable and subject to social, biological, psychological and environmental determinants. Currently, most cessation studies concentrate on short-to midterm behavioral changes. Besides, they use fixed typologies, thereby failing to capture the temporal changes in smoking/cessation behaviors, and its determinants.
Objective: To obtain long-term, data-driven longitudinal patterns or profiles of smoking, cessation, and related determinants in a cohort of adult smokers, and to investigate their dynamic links. Methods: The dataset originated from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Project, waves 2008 to 2016. Temporal dynamics of smoking/cessation, psychosocial constructs, and time-varying determinants of smoking were extracted with Group-Based Trajectory Modeling technique. Their associations were investigated via multiple regression models.
Results: Substantial heterogeneity of smoking and cessation behaviors was unveiled. Most respondents were classified as persistent smokers, albeit with distinct levels of consumption. For a minority, cessation could be sustained between 1 and 8 years, while others showed relapsing or fluctuating smoking behavior. Links between smoking/cessation trajectories with those of psychosocial and sociodemographic variables were diverse. Notably, changes in two variables were aligned to behavioral changes towards cessation: decreasing number of smoking peers and attaining a higher self-perceived control.
Conclusion: The unveiled heterogeneity of smoking behavior over time and the varied cross-dependencies between smoking data-driven typologies and those of underlying risk factors underscore the need of individually tailored approaches for motivational quitting.[download PDF]
Driezen, et al. 2019. State-level affordability of factory-made cigarettes among current US smokers: Findings from the ITC US Survey, 2003-2015 [access full article]
Cigarette affordability measures the price smokers pay for cigarettes in relation to their incomes. Affordability can be measured using the relative income price of cigarettes (RIP), or the price smokers pay to purchase 100 packs of 20 cigarettes divided by their per capita household income. Using longitudinal data from 7046 smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey, the purpose of this study was to test whether affordability significantly changed following the US federal tax increase implemented on 1 April 2009. This study also estimated temporal trends in affordability from 2003–2015 at state and national levels using small area estimation methods and segmented linear mixed effects regression models. RIP increased slightly during 2003–2008. This was followed by a 30% increase during 2008–2010, indicating cigarettes were less affordable after the federal tax increase. RIP continued to increase during 2010–2013 but decreased during 2013–2015, suggesting cigarettes have recently become more affordable for US smokers. State-level trends in RIP were consistent with overall national trends. Controlling for other factors, a $1 increase in the state excise tax was significantly associated with a 9% increase in RIP, indicating state taxes reduced affordability. Tax-induced price increases must keep pace with underlying economic conditions to ensure cigarettes do not become more affordable over time.[download PDF]
Sharma, et al. 2019. Awareness and interest in lung cancer screening among current and former smokers: Findings from the ITC United States Survey [access full article]
Purpose: To examine the awareness of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening among a population of current and former smokers using a nationally representative sample from the United States.
Methods: Data for this study come from Wave 9 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2015. Among respondents age ≥ 40 (n = 1145), a 50% random sample were asked a series of questions pertaining to lung cancer screening. This study examines awareness and screening behaviors in relationship to demographic characteristics of respondents, health beliefs, psychosocial behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Descriptive tables and χ2 tests were used to examine the association between those who were aware and unaware. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, stratified on respondents’ smoking status. Data were weighed to be representative of the current smoking population in the US.
Results: Overall, 52% of current and former smokers reported being aware of lung cancer screening. Among the group with no prior screening, 80.6% said they would take a lung cancer screening exam if recommended by their physician. In the multivariate models, former smokers had significantly greater awareness of lung cancer screening compared to current smokers [odds ratio 1.42 (95% confidence interval 1.03, 1.97)].
Conclusions: Awareness of LDCT lung cancer screening was lower among current smokers compared to former smokers. Most smokers who had not ever been screened said they would have lung cancer screening if it were recommended by their physician, demonstrating the need for healthcare providers to encourage those eligible for screening to[download PDF]
Hammond, et al. 2019. Prevalence of vaping and smoking among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States: repeat national cross-sectional surveys [access full article]
Objective: To examine differences in vaping and smoking prevalence among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States.
Design: Repeat cross sectional surveys.
Setting: Online surveys in Canada, England, and the US.
Participants: National samples of 16 to 19 year olds in 2017 and 2018, recruited from commercial panels in Canada (n=7891), England (n=7897), and the US (n=8140).
Main outcome measures: Prevalence of vaping and smoking was assessed for use ever, in the past 30 days, in the past week, and on 15 days or more in the past month. Use of JUUL (a nicotine salt based electronic cigarette with high nicotine concentration) and usual vaping brands were also assessed. Logistic regression models examined differences in vaping and smoking between countries and over time.
Results: The prevalence of vaping in the past 30 days, in the past week, and on 15 days or more in the past month increased in Canada and the US between 2017 and 2018 (P<0.001 for all), including among non-smokers and experimental smokers, with no changes in England. Smoking prevalence increased in Canada (P<0.001 for all measures), with modest increases in England, and no changes in the US. The percentage of ever vapers who reported more frequent vaping increased in Canada and the US (P<0.01 for all), but not in England. The use of JUUL increased in all countries, particularly the US and Canada—for example, the proportion of current vapers in the US citing JUUL as their usual brand increased threefold between 2017 and 2018.
Conclusions: Between 2017 and 2018, among 16 to 19 year olds the prevalence of vaping increased in Canada and the US, as did smoking in Canada, with little change in England. The rapidly evolving vaping market and emergence of nicotine salt based products warrant close monitoring.[download PDF]
Chung-Hall, et al. 2019. Impact of the WHO FCTC over the first decade: a global evidence review prepared for the Impact Assessment Expert Group [access full article]
Objective: To present findings of a narrative review on the implementation and effectiveness of 17 Articles of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) during the Treaty’s first decade.
Data sources: Published reports on global FCTC implementation; searches of four databases through June 2016; hand-search of publications/online resources; tobacco control experts.
Study selection: WHO Convention Secretariat global progress reports (2010, 2012, 2014); 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic; studies of social, behavioural, health, economic and/or environmental impacts of FCTC policies.
Data extraction: Progress in the implementation of 17 FCTC Articles was categorised (higher/intermediate/lower) by consensus. 128 studies were independently selected by multiple authors in consultation with experts.
Data synthesis: Implementation was highest for smoke-free laws, health warnings and education campaigns, youth access laws, and reporting/information exchange, and lowest for measures to counter industry interference, regulate tobacco product contents, promote alternative livelihoods and protect health/environment. Price/tax increases, comprehensive smoking and marketing bans, health warnings, and cessation treatment are associated with decreased tobacco consumption/health risks and increased quitting. Mass media campaigns and youth access laws prevent smoking initiation, decrease prevalence and promote cessation. There were few studies on the effectiveness of policies in several domains, including measures to prevent industry interference and regulate tobacco product contents.
Conclusions: The FCTC has increased the implementation of measures across several policy domains, and these implementations have resulted in measurable impacts on tobacco consumption, prevalence and other outcomes. However, FCTC implementation must be accelerated, and Parties need to meet all their Treaty obligations and consider measures that exceed minimum requirements.[download PDF]
2019. Cross-country comparison of cigarette and vaping product marketing exposure and use: Findings from the 2016 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey [access full article]
Objective: To compare exposure to and use of certain cigarette and vaping product marketing among adult smokers and vapers in four countries with contrasting regulations—Australia (AU), Canada, England and the USA.
Data sources: Adult smokers and vapers (n=12 294) from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (4CV1).
Analysis: Self-reported exposure to cigarette and vaping product advertising through point-of-sale, websites/social media, emails/texts, as well as exposure to and use of price offers were assessed for country differences using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple covariates.
Results: Reported exposure to cigarette advertising exposure at point-of-sale was higher in the USA (52.1%) than in AU, Canada and England (10.5%–18.5%). Exposure to cigarette advertising on websites/social media and emails/texts was low overall (1.5%–10.4%). Reported exposure to vaping ads at point-of-sale was higher in England (49.3%) and USA (45.9%) than in Canada (32.5%), but vaping ad exposure on websites/social media in Canada (15.1%) was similar with England (18.4%) and the USA (12.1%). Exposure to vaping ads via emails/texts was low overall (3.1%–9.9%). Exposure to, and use of, cigarette price offers was highest in the USA (34.0 % and 17.8 %, respectively), but the use rate among those exposed was highest in AU (64.9%). Exposure to, and use of, price offers for vaping products was higher in the USA (42.3 % and 21.7 %) than in AU, Canada and England (25.9%–31.5 % and 7.4%–10.3 %).
Conclusions: Patterns of cigarette and vaping product marketing exposure generally reflected country-specific policies, except for online vaping ads. Implications for research and policy are discussed.[download PDF]
Craig, et al. 2019. The impact of the WHO FCTC on tobacco control: Perspectives from stakeholders in 12 countries. [access full article]
Background: The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the first WHO treaty, entered into force in 2005. In April 2015, a seven-member independent expert group (EG) was established by a decision of the FCTC Conference of the Parties to assess the impact of the Treaty in its first decade. One component of the EG’s methodology was to gather evidence on WHO FCTC impact from Parties themselves. This paper presents findings from 12 country missions on how the FCTC impacted progress on tobacco control.
Methods: Between November 2015 and May 2016, EG members conducted missions in 12 countries representing each of the six WHO regions and the four World Bank economic development levels. In each country, the EG interviewed a broad range of stakeholders to assess the extent to which the FCTC had contributed to tobacco control. The primary objective was to assess whether tobacco control measures would have been developed or passed, or implemented at all, or as quickly, if there had been no FCTC. Through this counterfactual inquiry, the EG sought to determine the FCTC’s causal role.
Conclusion: The FCTC was reported to have made contributions along the entire policy/regulation process: the development of a measure, building legislative and political support for a measure and its implementation. These stakeholder perspectives support the conclusion that the FCTC has played a pivotal role in accelerating and strengthening the implementation of tobacco control measures, although tobacco industry interference continues to be a significant obstacle to further advancement.[download PDF]
Heckman, et al. 2019. Behavioral economic purchase tasks to estimate demand for novel nicotine/tobacco products and prospectively predict future use: Evidence from the Netherlands [access full article]
Introduction: The demand for alternative nicotine/tobacco products is not well established. This paper uses a behavioral economic approach to test whether smokers have differential demand for conventional factory-made, electronic, and very low nicotine content cigarettes (FMCs/ECs/VLNCs) and uses the prospective cohort design to test the predictive validity of demand indices on subsequent use of commercially available FMCs and Ecs.
Methods: Daily smokers (â‰¥16 years) from the Netherlands completed an online survey in April 2014 (N = 1215). Purchase tasks were completed for FMCs, ECs, and VLNCs. Participants indicated the number of cigarettes they would consume in 24 h, across a range of prices (0-30 euro). The relationship between consumption and price was quantified into four indices of demand (intensity, Pmax, breakpoint, and essential value). A follow-up survey in July 2015 measured FMC and EC use. Results: At baseline, greater demand was observed for FMCs relative to ECs and VLNCs across all demand indices, with no difference between ECs and VLNCs. At follow-up, greater baseline FMC demand (intensity, essential value) was associated with lower quit rates and higher relapse. EC demand (Pmax, breakpoint, essential value) was positively associated with any EC use between survey waves, past 30 day EC use, and EC purchase between waves.
Conclusions: Smokers valued FMCs more than ECs or VLNCs, and FMCs were less sensitive to price increases. Demand indices predicted use of commercially available products over a 15 month period. To serve as viable substitutes for FMCs, ECs and VLNCs will need to be priced lower than FMCs.
Implications: Purchase tasks can be adapted for novel nicotine/tobacco products as a means to efficiently quantify demand and predict use. Among current daily smokers, the demand for ECs and VLNCs is lower than FMCs.[download PDF]