Self-reported depression and anxiety and healthcare professional interactions regarding smoking cessations and nicotine vaping: Findings from 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey
Tildy, B., McNeill, A., East, K.A., Gravely, S., Fong, G.T., Cummings, K.M., Borland, R., Chan, C.K.G., Lim, C., Gartner, C., Yong, H.H., Brose, L.S. (2023). Self-reported depression and anxiety and healthcare professional interactions regarding smoking cessations and nicotine vaping: Findings from 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Tobacco Prevention & Cessation, 9(August), 26. doi: 10.18332/tpc/168288.
Introduction: People with mental health conditions are disproportionately affected by smoking-related diseases and death. The aim of this study was to assess whether health professional (HP) interactions regarding smoking cessation and nicotine vaping products (NVPs) differ by mental health condition.
Methods: The cross-sectional 2018 International Tobacco Control Four Country (Australia, Canada, England, United States) Smoking and Vaping Survey data included 11040 adults currently smoking or recently quit. Adjusted weighted logistic regressions examined associations between mental health (self-reported current depression and/or anxiety) and visiting a HP in last 18 months; receiving advice to quit smoking; discussing NVPs with a HP; and receiving a recommendation to use NVPs.
Results: Overall, 16.1% self-reported depression and anxiety, 7.6% depression only, and 6.6% anxiety only. Compared with respondents with no depression/anxiety, those with depression (84.7%, AOR=2.65; 95% CI: 2.17–3.27), anxiety (82.2%, AOR=2.08; 95% CI: 1.70–2.57), and depression and anxiety (87.6%, AOR=3.74; 95% CI: 3.19–4.40) were more likely to have visited a HP. Among those who had visited a HP, 47.9% received advice to quit smoking, which was more likely among respondents with depression (AOR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.34–1.86), and NVP discussions were more likely among those with depression and anxiety (AOR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.29–2.06). Of the 6.1% who discussed NVPs, 33.5% received a recommendation to use them, with no difference by mental health.
Conclusions: People with anxiety and/or depression who smoke were more likely to visit a HP than those without, but only those with depression were more likely to receive cessation advice, and only those with depression and anxiety were more likely to discuss NVPs. There are missed opportunities for HPs to deliver cessation advice. NVP discussions and receiving a positive recommendation to use them were rare overall.