Non-cigarette combustible tobacco use and its associations with subsequent cessation of smoking among daily cigarette smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys (2016-2020)
Li, L., Borland, R., Cummings, K.M., Fong, G.T., Hyland, A., Le Grande, M., McNeill, A. (2022). Non-cigarette combustible tobacco use and its associations with subsequent cessation of smoking among daily cigarette smokers: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Surveys (2016-2020). Addiction, [Published online August 8, doi: 10.1111/add.16023
Aims: To examine whether poly-use of cigarettes and other smoked products (poly-smoking) is predictive of quit attempts and quit success.
Design: A prospective multi-country cohort design.
Setting: Australia, Canada, England and the US.
Participants: 3983 adult daily cigarette smokers were surveyed in 2016 (Wave 1 of data collection) and were recontacted in 2018 (Wave 2) (i.e., Wave 1–Wave 2 cohort) in the International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping (ITC 4CV) Surveys; and 3736 smokers were surveyed in 2018 and recontacted in 2020 (Wave 3) (i.e., Wave 2–Wave 3 cohort).
Measurements: Participants were asked about their cigarette smoking and use of cigars, cigarillos, pipes, and waterpipes. Outcomes were quit attempts between two survey waves and success, defined as having quit smoking all the combustible tobacco at the subsequent survey for 1 month or more.
Findings: Levels of poly-smoking were 12.7% in the Wave 1–Wave 2 cohort and 10.5% for the Wave 2–Wave 3 cohort. Compared with cigarette-only smokers, poly-smokers were more likely to attempt between Waves 1 and 2 (54.9% vs. 42.7%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.74, p<0.01), but not between Waves 2 and 3 (43.8% vs. 40.1%, aOR=0.94, 95%CI 0.72-1.22). Poly-smoking predicted reduced likelihood of success in both cohorts among attempters and the overall samples. Between Waves 2 and 3 there were significantly more transitions to non-daily smoking among the poly-smokers (12.4% vs. 5.3%, 2=40.4, p<0.001).
Conclusions: There is a consistent association between poly-smoking (use of cigarettes along with other smoked products) and reduced quit success for combustible tobacco, but it is likely due to increased likelihood of transitioning to non-daily use rather than complete cessation.