Differences in smoking cessation behaviours and vaping status among adult daily smokers with or without depression, anxiety, hazardous alcohol use: Findings from the 2018 and 2020 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey
Yimsaard, P., Gravely, S., Meng, G., Fong, G.T., Cummings, K.M., Hyland, A., Borland, R., Hammond, D., Kasza, K.A., Li, L., Quah, A.C.K. (2023). Differences in smoking cessation behaviours and vaping status among adult daily smokers with or without depression, anxiety, hazardous alcohol use: Findings from the 2018 and 2020 ITC Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, [Published online, doi:10.1007/s11469-023-01058].
This study examined differences in quit attempts, 1-month quit success, and vaping status at follow-up among a cohort of 3709 daily smokers with and without depression, anxiety, and regular alcohol use who participated in both the 2018 and 2020 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping (ITC 4CV) Surveys. At baseline, a survey with validated screening tools was used to classify respondents as having no, or one or more of the following: 1) depression, 2) anxiety, and 3) regular alcohol use. Multivariable adjusted regression analyses were used to examine whether baseline (2018) self-report conditions were associated with quit attempts; quit success; and vaping status by follow-up (2020). Results showed that respondents who reported depressive symptoms were more likely than those without to have made a quit attempt (aOR = 1.32, 95% CI:1.03–1.70, p = 0.03), but were less likely to have quit (aOR = 0.55, 95% CI:0.34–0.89, p = 0.01). There were no differences in quit attempts or quit success between those with and without self-reported anxiety diagnoses or regular alcohol use. Among successful quitters, respondents with baseline depressive symptoms and self-reported anxiety diagnoses were more likely than those without to report vaping at follow-up (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI:1.16–5.74, p = 0.02, and aOR = 3.35 95% CI:1.14–9.87, p = 0.03). In summary, it appears that smokers with depression are motivated to quit smoking but were less likely to manage to stay quit, and more likely to be vaping if successfully quit. As smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions, it is crucial for healthcare professionals to identify these vulnerable groups and offer tailored smoking cessation support and continued support during their quit attempt.