Individual-, social- and policy- factors associated with smoking cessation among adult male cigarette smokers in Hanoi, Vietnam: a longitudinal study
Nguyen, T.N.P., Love, J., Hunsberger, M., Tran, T.P.T., Nguyen, T.L., Phan, T.H., Luong, N.K., Minh, H.V., Ng, N. (2023). Individual-, social- and policy- factors associated with smoking cessation among adult male cigarette smokers in Hanoi, Vietnam: a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health, 23, 1883. doi: 10.1186/s12889-023-16781-7.
Background: Nearly one-in-two Vietnamese men smoke cigarettes placing them among the highest tobacco consumers in the world. Despite the need for smoking cessation to curb the burden of tobacco-related diseases in Vietnam, this rate remains at less than 30%. Therefore, this study examines individual-, social- and policy factors associated with smoking cessation among adult male smokers in Vietnam.
Methods: We established a longitudinal International Tobacco Control study of male smokers in Hanoi, Vietnam, in September 2018. This paper analyses 1525 men who participated in baseline and one-year follow-up. We applied a weighted multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between smoking cessation and individual-, social- and policy predictors.
Results: At follow-up, 14.8% of participants had quit smoking for at least 30 consecutive days during the last year. Among the persistent smokers, 56.6% expressed intention to quit smoking. Factors associated with smoking cessation included a lower number of cigarettes smoked per day (aOR?=?0.96, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.99) and having several attempts to quit smoking (aOR?=?2.16, 95% CI 1.13, 4.12). Intention to quit smoking was associated with multiple quit attempts, a chronic condition diagnosis, more tobacco-related knowledge, greater self-efficacy, and more worries about their future health. The perceived impact of smoke-free policy and health warning labels were positively associated with intention to quit at any stage.
Conclusions: Interventions aimed at increasing smoking cessation should focus on all aspects of individual, social, and policy factors. Persistent smokers are more motivated to quit if they have made multiple quit attempts, more self-efficacy of quitting and worried about their future health, indicating that increasing smokers’ beliefs and knowledge may be important for behavioural change. Health warning labels and tobacco taxation policies should be maintained and promoted as they are perceived to be particularly useful for persistent smokers’ intention to quit.